Monday, September 30, 2019

Advantages And Disvantages About Television Essay

How many hours a day do you watch television? Television has had a deep impact on everybody’s life. This powerful appliance has become an addiction for most people. Children, teenagers, adults and also babies spend hours and hours in front of the screen. Nowadays, it cannot be denied that this technological window is one of the main massive media; however not everything it offers is favorable. Many advantages and disadvantages can be discussed about the TV set. The main media of the world has been and remains to be television. Many advantages can be accounted for this. First of all, news is broadcast around the world immediately. People are notified about politics, social problems, natural catastrophes, of any part of the world without delay. Moreover, entertainment programs are so popular events in people’s life that families enjoy a variety of top-rated TV shows and films without the necessity of going out from their houses. Last but not least, it is important to remark that educational programs can be imparted through this communication channel from which, even in the furthest places, a man could benefit from. On the other hand, there are also many drawbacks to TV. One of the main problems that current society has is sedentariness; people spend too many hours immersed in this world, what turns them into lazy beings, who will eventually shirk their duties. For children and babies times of outdoor activities seem to have finished, consequently the goggle box is now known as the mechanical nanny. At last, in the same way that this TV set imparts education, it also shows immoral programs, violence and an inappropriate use of language, which most of the times has a deep influence on every member of the human civilization. To my way of thinking there should be a control system on what television shows, or at least schedules specifying suitable timetables for some kinds of programs, not without forgetting that people must be conscious about their own use of this boob tube. Sedentariness: sedentarismo. I took references from Oxford Dictionary.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Introduction to Modern Management

Introduction to Modern Management Lindsay Bursar Aspen University Abstract Throughout history many different theories have been developed, researched, written about and put to the test in actual work place setting to see how well they work and how effective they are. Lower-level management, comprehensive analysis of management and human relations movement in management theory are Just a few of them. Each theory was and still is important in today's modern business world.Every theory has had some kind of impact on the new theories in management that eave come about since then and will still continue to have an impact in the future. It's important that managers now and managers in the future are educated on these different management theories so that they can provide the support and education to their employees need and deserve. This will foster a positive work environment that will lead to increased productivity and success within companies. Every company must have good, competent man agers in order to survive and be successful.Module 1 Introduction to Modern Management Assignments: Essay Questions â€Å"Managers should be paid more than regular employees. † Do you agree with this statement? Justify your answer in scholarly detail. There are many reasons management should be paid more than a regular employee. One of the reasons being the workload managers take on and another being the necessary skills that a manager must possess to name Just a few. As a current member of management at the hospice agency I work for, I agree that management should be paid more.However, I agreed with this before I became management as well. As a regular employee I saw everyday how different the workload was between a regular employee and management. According to a recent study an average manager is actually worth 1. 75 employees (Edwards, 2012). After being promoted into my current management position, I agree with this statement 100%. Now instead of doing the Job of one, I'm doing the Job of three and still manage to get everything done and in on time or ahead of a deadline while also managing my employees.Employees in my old position who have the workload of only one sometimes struggle to meet the same deadlines. The expectation of productivity is much higher for a manager versus those of a regular employee. The importance of a good manager cannot be stressed enough. Management influences every aspect of an organization from top management to lower level management (Cert. & Cert., 012). If any organization or company intends on being successful then it is of the utmost importance that they hire good management because these people are the ones who lead the company towards their goals and towards success.Good management must have the skills to carry out the four basic management functions; planning, organizing, influencing and controlling (Cert. & Cert., 2012). Without these skills any member of management would be ineffective and unsuccessful. Manager s should be paid more than regular employees because not every employee in an organization possesses these skills. If every employee did, the need for management would be obsolete. â€Å"Discuss in scholarly detail why it is important for managers to be aware of cultural differences in their dealings with people. One of the biggest reasons it's important for management to aware of cultural difference is because of the increase in multi-national businesses and business deals. In today's business world an increasing number of companies have started doing business with people from different countries and cultures. Because of this trend of globalization, it is very important that managers understand and respect cultural differences. If differences in customs and culture are not known or not respected, business deals can quickly go south and be lost (Brown).Managers must know what kind of behaviors would be inappropriate in situations where you are dealing with people from other culture s in order to avoid doing anything that would be deemed rude or disrespectful. They need to be able to teach their employees what is acceptable and prepare their employees and themselves for interactions where this knowledge is paramount. One of the best things managers can to do to prepare their staff for these interactions is cultural awareness training (Acculturates! Consulting, 2011).By giving staff cultural awareness training they're being given the tools to learn about the customs and cultures they'll be interacting with. Employees will go to meetings for business deals or potential business deals armed with the cultural knowledge to ensure that they will not offend or come across as disrespectful. This training and knowledge that managers give to their employees will enable them to be culturally sensitive. This will make not only the employees, but also the company move forward and be successful in the international business world. How is lower-level management analysis diffe rent from comprehensive analysis of management? Is the latter approach suitable for an organization focusing on increasing productivity by concentrating on the ‘one best way to perform a task? Explain your answer in scholarly detail! † According to Cert. & Cert. (2012), â€Å"lower-level management analysis concentrates on the ‘one best way to perform a task† (p. 28). This means each task a worker does is closely looked at and studied to come up with the most efficient way to complete the task that will yield the highest production.This approach is also known as the scientific method of management (Cert. & Cert., 2012). Frederick W. Taylor has come commonly known as the creator of scientific management. While Taylor worked at Bethlehem Steel Co. His goal was to increase worker efficiency and productivity. He did this on the idea that â€Å"every Job had one best way to do it and that this way should be discovered and put into operation† (Cert. & Cert. , 2012, p. 29). This approach differs from the comprehensive analysis of management because it looks at very specific tasks and simplifies each task as much as possible to create efficiency.Comprehensive analysis of management focuses on â€Å"the entire range of managerial performance† (Cert. & Cert., 2012, p. 32). Whereas lower-level management analysis or scientific management focused more on the micro aspects of how to efficiently do a Job, comprehensive analysis of managements focuses on the macro aspects. Henry Payola was very influential in creating a management philosophy for the comprehensive analysis of management (Cert. & Cert., 2012). So much so that the general ideas and principles of management that he wrote about are still considered very useful in today's management world.Payola had 14 main principles of management that cover many different topics and believed that having managerial excellence is an ability that can be obtained (Summon, 2010). The three bigges t principles that Payola focused on were â€Å"organizational efficiency, the handling of people, and appropriate management action† (Cert. & Cert., 2012, p. 33). These principles can be seen being used in modern management today. I believe that using the comprehensive analysis of management is suitable to use in an organization that is focusing on the â€Å"one best way' to do a Job to increase the organizations productivity.While Frederick W. Tailor's contributions to the management world were very influential and important, they are also unpopular because of the extreme his ideas went to. In order to increase productivity the whole many should first be working towards a common goal or direction. If a company is focusing solely on the â€Å"one best way' to complete a task, that is the goal there are focusing on first with increased productivity second. By focusing on the â€Å"one best way,† other aspects and employees in a company are being ignored which ultimate ly will not lead a company towards increased productivity.Looking at a company and the company's goal in a comprehensive view is what will help achieve the goal of increased productivity. Everything and everybody must work in conjunction with one other to reach their goals. Discuss in scholarly detail the human relations movement in management theory. How would you, as a manager in an organization, use the human relations approach to manage employees? † According to Cert. & Cert. (2012), the human relations movement is â€Å"a people- oriented approach to management in which the interaction of people in organizations is studied to Judge its impact on organizational success† (p. 5). This movement was started because of the Hawthorne studies that were conducted from 1927 to 1932 by Professor Elton Mayo (Cert. & Cert., 2012). These studies gave managers a lot to think about and a new direction to start researching. The human relations movement focuses more on employees as individuals instead of focusing on procedures and policies in the workplace (Ziegler, 2014). Instead of a company environment that focuses on quotas and procedures, the environment focuses on communication between managers and employees.With a better understanding of employees and an environment more focused on communication, production and success for a company can actually increase. If the workplace is negative, noncommittal and unproductive, then there are some big changes that would need to be made. As a manager I would use this knowledge o learn about my employees and find out what motivates them to work more efficiently and productively. I would figure what exactly would help create commitment to the company from employees and grow off of that.I would start building relationships between management and employees to strengthen the unity within the company to continue working towards the common goal of success. If an attitude of commitment and high productivity can be grown and fostered within the employees then the manager is doing a good Job of creating an effective work environment. Good relationships with the employee's means employees are titivated and will work harder and more productively. â€Å"Discuss in scholarly detail how a manager's understanding of his employees' physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs improve productivity? Managers must have human relations skills in order to be effective. Human relations skills are defined as â€Å"the ability to work with people in a way that enhances organizational success† according to Cert. & Cert. (2012). It's important that managers understand Mascots Hierarchy of Needs to improve productivity within their employees. The five levels of Mascots Hierarchy of Needs are physiological, feet, social, esteem and self-actualization (Burton, 2012). In order for people to achieve the top level of self-actualization, each of the other levels must first be fulfilled starting wi th the lowest and then making the way up the hierarchy.These five levels are not only pertinent to people's lives outside of work but also their lives and well-being in the work place. The first level, physiological, is people's need for air, food, sleep, etc. If an employee doesn't have those basic needs met then they come to work tired or feeling sick and their productivity will be decreased. The second level, feet, has to do with people's need to feel secure. Within the workplace, employees need to feel safe and secure in their Job on a daily basis to keep up their productivity. The third level, social, refers to peoples need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance.Within a company it's important that employees feel valued and part of a team. The fourth level, esteem, is what will make employees feel confident. After an employee masters a skill and is recognized for it, their self-esteem will rise. This can lead to an increase in productivity because they are proud of themsel ves and what they've accomplished. The last level is self-actualization. An employee strives to the best that they can and be all that they can possibly be. Once that is reached, the employee will be satisfied within their Job. They'll feel accomplished and part of a team.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

6 charts show wide economic gulf between races (memo format) Article

6 charts show wide economic gulf between races (memo format) - Article Example We further-for clarity and simplicity purpose-discuss each subsection in terms of the previous year situational and the current year situation. Going a notch higher, we critically compare and contrast the situations at the beginning through the trend and to the end of year 2011 as follows. A critical examination of the persons above 18 years saw a declining trend from 70% rate for whites to 60% percent between years 1960 to 2011. On the other hand, the blacks also indicated a diminishing trend from 60% to 30% marriage rates between different races. The gap at the beginning was recorded as 13 Pts and widened to 24 Pts. A remarkable progress was made in terms of the number of both races, with initial gap being 23 Pts in 1960 and decreasing to 18 Pts in 2011. The Blacks initially were at 70% and the Whites at 90% which slightly decreased to about 87% for the Whites and 67% for Blacks. A 5 Pts change was seen while contrasting the level of disparity under homeownership segregation. At the beginning of year 1980, the Whites owned about 70% and this rose to about 73% in year 2011. On the other hand, about 47% was initially owned by the Blacks which merely changed. Above the age of 25, both races are seen to almost equal in terms statistics available. An initial gap of 24 Pts in 1960 has been narrowed to 7 Pts at the close of the year 2011. To add on the same, an increasing trend in terms of education is noted for both the races. In respect to life expectancy at birth for the two races, the gap has been minimized to a mere difference of 4 years in 2011 from the previous gap of 7 years in 1960. The trend increases and this will reduce further to equalize. At the presidential election, the trend has really changed with the blacks taking the lead to vote. A negative relationship is seen at the close of year 2011 where a negative change of 3

Friday, September 27, 2019

Porter's Five Forces of Burberry Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Porter's Five Forces of Burberry - Assignment Example The most common barrier that may be faced by new entrants include; cost of entering this industry is very high given the fact that there has been new technological advancement. Secondly, Burberry tends to have cost advantage and well established channels for distributing its products. The cost advantage may acts as a major entry barrier to the new firms. Further, Burberry has well differentiated products such as; Trench coats that its competitors may not be able to emulate. However, fashion industry tends to be very dynamic. This means that entry barriers are low and therefore, Burberry should work to increase internal and external strength to compete with new entrants more efficiently and effectively (Totallyan, 2011). Burberry Company need to have numerous suppliers than it has currently. There is a need for the company to have numerous suppliers so that incase one supplier fail to deliver raw materials for manufacturing fashion products another supplier may be contacted. This may help to reduce loses emanating from prompt delivery of raw materials. In addition, having numerous suppliers may ensure that there is seamless flow of products into the fashion market (Merrill, 2008). In this case buyer’s power is relatively high in the fashion industry under which Burberry is operating. This is because the numbers of large players are increasing making it possible for buyers to switch into brands produced by other companies. However, most of the new entrants do not have differentiated products as compared to Burberry Company. This provides Burberry a competitive advantage over its competitors because of customers brand loyalty. In addition, the buyers are well informed about the products produced by Burberry. This tends to influence their power. Moreover, economic forces such as inflation may affect buyer’s power whereby, during inflation buyers power tend to be low as they become more sensitive to higher price changes (Kotler, Keller, and Lu

Thursday, September 26, 2019

International corporate reporting issues Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

International corporate reporting issues - Essay Example International corporate reporting issues The objective of this standard is to frame the foundation for the presentation of financial statements. The standard is to ensure the compatibility with the company’s financial performance in previous years as well as with that of its competitors. US GAAP is the framework that offers Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, which are used by United States organisations or the companies listed on Wall Street. This set of standards is developed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. The framework is a combination of authoritative standards introduced by the responsible authorities, as well as the accepted ways to carry out accounting and reporting activities. These standards are constructed solely by input of US organisations rather than any outside influences. The key objectives of accounting standards are identification, measurement, and reporting of financial information of the organisational entities to the interested stakeholders. Financial accounting is a process culminating in the preparation of the financial reports of the organisations. These are done for the use of both the internal and external stakeholders. These financial statements include balance sheets, income statements, and statements of the owner’s equity and cash flow situation including assets and expenses. In the United States, the most significant source of influence on accounting standards is politics. The most substantial factor in the political arena is user groups. These groups include the parties most affected by accounting standards, rules, and regulations. â€Å"Accounting standards are as much a product of political action as they are of careful logic or empirical findings† (Wiley, 2002, p.14). These groups of stakeholders require accounts and re ports regarding company finances which are essential to successful business planning and strategizing. Groups know the best way to influence these standards in order to have a more favourable outcome financially is to participate in the framing of those same structures or to try to influence or persuade the authorities more directly responsible for the formulation and amending of the standards. In the US there are many authoritative bodies responsible for the formulation and development of the generally accepted financial standards; FASB is the significant and major contributor in this development. Undoubtedly, the board faces intense amounts of pressure and efforts to incorporate and influence the changes in the present standards and in the development of new ones. Moreover, the situation gets complicated with the involvement of two

Risk management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Risk management - Essay Example The systemic risk governance requires unity between the countries and enclosure within the process of industry, government, academia and the civil society. Governance is defined as the processes, traditions, actions and institutions by which the authority exercises and takes decision which is then implemented (Aven & Vinnem, 2007). Risk Governance The term risk governance can be defined as the assessment, identification, management and communication of the risks in a board framework. It comprise of â€Å"actors, rules, conventions, processes and mechanisms and is concerned with how relevant risk information is collected, analyzed and communicated, and how management decisions are taken†. It uses the main beliefs of the good governance that includes effectiveness, transparency, efficiency, strategic focus, accountability, equity, sustainability and fairness. It deals with the rule of law and also need to chose the solution which will be legally and politically feasible along wi th publicly and ethically acceptable. Risk is always accompanied by changes. It is an important and permanent part of every life. The urge and the capacity to accept the challenge of the risk is very crucial for the achievement of the economic development and the introduction of the new technologies. Sometimes risk is accompanied by potential opportunities and benefits in the emerging technological sector (Graham & Rogers, 2002). Good risk governance aims at minimizing the following: 1) The unfair distribution of benefits and risk between the countries, social groups and the organisations. 2) By modifying the approaches for assessment and management of the same risk. 3) By emphasising extensive focus on the high profile risks it can be eliminated but the lower profile risk are also looked upon. 4) By managing the risk tradeoffs. 5) Failure in understanding the secondary effects and the linkages between the issues 6) The cost is reduced in case of inefficient regulations. 7) The deci sions that are taken for inappropriate account of the public perception. 8) Decisions are taken for not losing the trust of the public. Risk oversight function The main challenge of managing the risk lies in the benefit that the society will receive from change and by minimising the ill consequences of the risk which is associated with the change. (Confusing sentence, reframe) The main aim of the Board of Risk Governance of every company is to oversight the risk that the company is going to face or faced already confronted with. The main risk oversight functions are the following: 1) The boards are worried regarding the strategic long term risk: Over sighting risk is an important duty of the boards. The boards pay serious attention to many facets of the issues that includes a wide range of risks that the companies confront and the various enterprise risk management (ERM) systems. But the members underline the fact that it is crucial for the boards to concentrate on the risks which a ffects the strategy of the company, leveraging talent of the directors. It is also needed to help the senior management for identifying, analyzing and responding to those risks. The challenges that are posed to the very existence of a company are the big risk of the disruptive technologies and the new business models. The new business models which emerge suddenly pose threat to the existence of the

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

DQ1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 5

DQ1 - Essay Example The hierarchies are a universal arrangement within organizations. This is for the reason that they imitate a normal as well as common method for individuals to tackle with complication. Forming a chain of command is consequently an ordinary thing to do, up till now it is equally simple as well as intricate. During the past the organizational structures were simple, with one department handling marketing and sales, one department handling distribution and customer service, and the other department working on research and development. The employees were more or less settled in their routines. But, in the present scenario it is pretty unrealistic to have the organizational structure defined above. Each one of the departments has loads to cope up with everyday, larger targets to meet, deadlines to meet, a bigger array of customers to be satisfied. The materialization of fresh technology, goods as well as amplified international rivalry will only assist the alteration that will be required in order to contend. An individual cannot supervise the history however can in no doubt take arraign of the future. The most noteworthy event is the hastening rate of modification for the goods also the growing range of goods presented as a result in compound also varying requirements mutually for individuals as well as for structures. Additionally, the consumers, the suppliers, as well as the technical modernizations keep transforming at spectacular momentum furthermore they have need of nippy reactions in order to defend their associations or else the aggressive positions. The element of efficient partnership within job situations signifies a method of accomplishing aggressive benefit within the market. The concept of effectual association signifies a major aspect of organizing a corporation’s structure. The plans utilized for corporations during the past cannot be utilized specified the burden on todays, a great deal

Monday, September 23, 2019

Great britain world war 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Great britain world war 1 - Essay Example With that Great Britain also had the mightiest Air Force in the world that spoke volumes about its stronghold over other nations. Its Army comprised of 3.5 million personnel which included the most effective contingent of the successful Allied armies that were on the main front (Stokesbury 1981). A great amount of stimulus was received on the part of its industries where some of these were coming down ever since the World War 1 had started. Having said that, there were many industries which had especially been set up, including the dyestuffs, chemicals, non-ferrous metal refineries, optical glass and instruments, aero-engines and aircrafts. Full employment seemed to be a norm where labor shortage was being experienced throughout Great Britain. Lastly, more than 1 million square miles were in the process of being added to the country’s overseas dependencies and possessions. Essentially speaking, the delusion was the real reason why Great Britain found itself in a muddle before, during and after the World War 1. This war had become the Great British Excuse because the economic damage that took place during this while was irreparable. However some people are of the view that this was merely a myth whereas Great Britain went through an industrial revolution which was carried out at a very swift speed. The psychological damage that was done to the Great Britain was immense and it cannot be denied at all. In fact, British understood that they were dealt in a far worse manner than any other populace during the war years. This could have been a delusion as has been documented by several writers and philosophers. The governing class within the society was very painfully affected by this war and misapprehensions started to rise with the passage of time (Chalcraft 2007). These misapprehensions went far ahead than the governing class, which if seen correctly and within contexts was only a fraction of the society. The World War 1 had a very mentally exhausting affect on the British populace and the whole of Great Britain. Since the might of Great Britain was so huge, it only made more reason to fathom how it came down during the war years. The mental scars were difficult to get over with. It left quite a task at hand for the leaders that stood the test of time during the World War 1 to gather their people together and look to move ahead with a renewed vigor and a vision to set things right. The heavy British losses during the 1916-1918 were due to a number of reasons. These included the lack of equipment and a generally abysmal routine observed during training sessions. Also the British army was seen to have a missing element of the killer military instinct which was necessary to win the World War 1. The generalship was incompetent which spoke much of the already discussed trauma in this paper. Indeed there was more than a single reason why Great Britain had fallen out on the contexts of the World War 1 (Burt 2012). There were 2 million casualt ies during the 1916-1918 time period that spoke much of how Great Britain had been following the war years and how it had prepared itself in line with the other nations which are more or less trying their best to comply. Even though the United States, France, Imperial Russia and Imperial Germany had to go through the same ordeals, there was a characteristic trauma attached to the British legacy of the war years which continued to haunt it till

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Unit 1 Project Overview Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Unit 1 Project Overview - Coursework Example ronments namely; people, staffing and management,IT and communications, human resources development and training, materials, manufacturing and production, materials, manufacturing and production etc. and anything else which requires planning and managing within businesses. In recent past, British Airways hired a new managing director. When this managing director started, he realized that the firm was not effective and was wasting valuable resources. To make the company more cost-effective, this managing director resolved to reshape the entire company. He noticed that the best approach to do this was via a change methodology management plan. Methodically, the firm started reducing its employees. However, before this was done, via his change management leadership, the managing director gave the organization the reasons for the reorganization and privatization of the firm so as to prepare them for the impending change. Therefore, through leadership and communication, managing director directed his organization through a tough time that could have been harmful without effective change management resistance communication (Burke, 2013). One constraint in this environment that would affect the success of the project is lack of enough resources to pay the workers being laid off. The other constraint is communication deficit – where project manager fails to provide appropriate information to enough people, along with the lack of a structure or culture for effective communication. 2) Reflect on the various roles discussed dealing with how project managers respond to change. Describe an instance involving change, in which you should have or did model the way as a project manager. Explain what you learned from this experience. The British Airways is ineffective and is wasting valuable resources. To return the company to profitability, as the company project manager who is responding to this change I have to decide to change the entire company. This can be achieved

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Cell Phones Essay Example for Free

Cell Phones Essay Cell phones are the way of life today. In the US, little kids are carrying around the newest iPhone versions. Closing the digital divide requires studying and learning about the country’s needs and capabilities of upgrading to the digital world. There are countries that are financially unable to afford a cell phone, but it should be the cell phone companies that should be able to work around various prices for cell phones. For example, in the U.S. the iPhone is taking over and consumers require the latest technologies. As the phones get older, companies should send those phones to less developed countries in an effort to grow the digital market and close the digital divide. As the article mentions, India leads the way with 756 million subscribers, while being a developing country. All it takes is an introduction to the country and cell phones begin to spread like wildfire. They market themselves once introduced in a country at a reasonable price. If the price is too much for a single family to afford, the family can set goals to attain a cell phone in the future. Either way, cell phones sell themselves. â€Å"To get a sense of how rapidly cell phones are penetrating the global marketplace, you need only to look at the sales figures. According to statistics from the market database Wireless Intelligence, it took about 20 years for the first billion mobile phones to sell worldwide. The second billion sold in four years, and the third billion sold in two. Eighty percent of the world’s population now lives within range of a cellular network, which is double the level in 2000† (Corbett, 2008). In 2008, these statistics show that cell phone market was on a rise. Since iPhone’s introduction in 2007, the cell phone market has grown even more substantially, especially in the U.S. I can speak for the ever-increasing mobile service in India as even rickshaw drivers who make about 50 rupees (about $1.25) in two hours are carrying a cell phone. Companies such as Obopay and Moka are transforming the service provider payment plan to pay as to go in various countries. â€Å"Obopay, for instance, is enabling third-world countries including India to receive and send payments via text message, while Moka provides language translations, such as English to Chinese† . This is a way to close the divide. If a family cannot afford to pay a consistent wage every month for a cell phone, companies such as Obopay are able to provide the pay as you go plan. Families and individuals in India pay as they go, they utilize their cell phones, as they need to, according to how much they are able to afford. Through these payment plans, cell phone companies can sell their phones to a mass audience in large countries like India and China. One company that has millions of customers in third world countries is Nokia. â€Å"There are entire chunks of the planet where Nokia has a virtual monopoly because no other manufacturer even wants to compete† . With the iPhone and Android dominating the U.S. market, Nokia has found its niche in third-world countries. The countries where consumers cannot yet afford the newest iPhone are turning to Nokia. They have positioned themselves as #1 ahead of Samsung, Apple, Motorola and anyone else. This is because they saw a market opportunity and are utilizing the need for cell phones around the world. The U.S. may be looking for new technology, but to the third world countries, simple Nokia phones are new technology. References: Corbett, S. (2008, April 13). Can the Cell Phone Help End Global Poverty. Retrieved April 18, 2012, from NYTimes: Openshaw, J. (2009, May 24). Mobile Phones: Key To Developing Nations. Retrieved April 18, 2012, from Huffington Post: Raby, M. (2012, January 30). Nokia still top mobile phone maker. Retrieved April 18, 2012, from TG Daily:

Friday, September 20, 2019

Analysis of Refugee Protection Mechanisms

Analysis of Refugee Protection Mechanisms INTRODUCTION On any given day, thousands of individuals including women and children from all parts of the world are forced to flee their homes for fear of persecution or to escape the dangers of armed conflicts and other refugee-creating force making claims for refugee status in foreign countries. If the key in defining who a refugee is, should not be the reason for leaving ones country but rather the reason for being unable or unwilling to return to it, then in contemporary international system, the problems of border control and trans-boundary flows of asylum seekers are ever relevant to states as well as to the academic researchers in the field of International Relations. After the crises in the management of refugees during World War II, international bodies, primarily United Nations, has allocated significant proportions of its attention and its resources to build up and develop norms of refugee protection as part of the international system of governance. The primary goal of the collective attempts was to lay down the basics for refugee protection in cases of political turmoil, civil or national wars and ethnic conflicts. These attempts, though, were not only the results of the dramatic event of World War II as hinted above, but also accompanied the development of Human Rights regimes at the global level since the late years of the 1940s. It is in this context that the Convention related to the status of Refugees had been drafted and was released on 28th July, 1951. Additional international document in the field is the 1967 Protocol Relating to the status of Refugees known as the New York Protocol. According to the UNHCR 2008 Global Trends report, there were some 42 million forcibly displaced people worldwide at the end of 2008. This includes 15.2 million refugees, 827000 asylum-seekers (pending cases) and 26 million internally displaced person (IDPs).[1] The legal obligations requiring that receiving states not return these refugees to situations of serious human rights abuse derive from international law, but does the so-called international refugee law clearly determine how governments respond to involuntary migration? If the answer is yes then why do states pay lip service to the important of honouring the right to seek asylum, but in practice devote significant resources to keep refugees away from their borders.[2] My work will attempt to evaluate the international refugee system so as to discover whether the norms in the system for refugee protection constitute an international regime, as defined by international relations literature in order to show that if it is a regim e, then states are no longer afforded the full freedom of action and decision making under the doctrine of sovereignty and that they have a certain level of obligation to abide by regime rules and help in the upkeep of the regime. International regime is increasingly in a state of crisis. While armed conflict and human rights abuse continue to force individuals and groups to flee, many governments are retrenching from their legal duty to provide refugees with the protection they require. In this work, I will attempt to explain among other things, refugee laws increasingly marginal role in defining the international response to refugee protection. This will lead me to suggest the basic principles upon which I believe reformulation of international refugee protection mechanisms should be predicated. Refugee law must be reaffirmed, bolstered and perhaps reconceived to respond to this serious deterioration in the rights and security of refugees. This thesis will evaluate the international legal mechanisms for refugee protection. Its premise is that refugee law is a mode of human rights protection. The paper will address the legal definition of a refugee, refugee rights and the institutional and procedural structur es through which claims for protection are evaluated. It will clearly define and apply contemporary legal standards, within an international and domestic legal context, and subject the present domestic and international regime to critical scrutiny. TOPIC AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to closely look at the international refugee protection system that is made up of the various conventions, treaties and regional agreements, and domestic refugee policies, in order to determine whether or not the system constitute an international regime. The purpose of trying to discover whether these mechanisms for refugee protection do or do not constitute an international regime is to show that the members of the regime (i.e. signatory states to the 1951 Convention and 1967 Protocol, regional agreements and those states that have enshrined the Convention in to their domestic asylum policies) thus have their actions restricted considerably by the very fact that they are members of the regime. They are no longer allowed the full freedom and decision-making afforded to them under the doctrine of state sovereignty. Regime plays important role in the international system in bringing about co-operation and stability. In my analysis of regime theory, I will attem pt a highlight of the role the refugee protection regime plays within the international system as a whole and discuss whether the roles are changing. THESIS QUESTION: In lieu with the above, this paper will attempt to address the following thesis questions: Do the contemporary refugee protection mechanisms in the international system constitute an international regime? If the system of protection is an international regime, what kind of regime does it represent? What are its characteristics and how is it important? How are restrictive measures adopted by states affecting the international protection regime? Specifically, do they account for the change within or of, the regime, or a weakening of the regime itself? What is the role of the regime within the international system as a whole, and how is this role evolving especially in the face of states use of restrictive measures? THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The study will use the Rationalist approach to regime theory. The mainstream rationalist theories of (interest- based) neo-liberalism and (power-based) neo-realism are the basis for the theoretical framework for this write-up. The focus on neoliberal or interest based theory of regime represents the fact that it has been extraordinarily influential in the past (two) decades and have come to represent the mainstream approach to analyzing international institutions.[3] The work will however not be limited to these two theories. In a situation where millions of innocent lives are at stake each year and states come together to attempt to solve the existing problems and potentially stop it from occurring in the future, the researcher believes that it is not rational to assume that state action is driven by self interest and power politics alone. In contrast, state behavior within the international refugee protection regime largely comes from humanitarian concerns for people in need and fr om respect for international human rights law and international humanitarian law. It is in this light that the thesis will also consider the use of constructivist paradigm so as to show the importance of international norms, rules and principles, both within the regime itself and the role they play within the domestic asylum policy. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY The work will aim at addressing the contemporary mechanisms in the international system for the protection of refugees focusing on post WWII onwards to current from historical perspective. While looking at the restrictive measures that states across the entire international system practice, the researcher will not undertake a close examination of any specific state within the international system of protection, but rather would address the system as a whole in an attempt to define and analyze its contents, discuss its importance in the international system and analyze the various changes that may be occurring within it and how these may affect the regime. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The methodological framework of this research is a qualitative one. This study will use interpretivism as its main research philosophy. A descriptive research intends to present facts concerning the nature and status of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study (Creswell, 1994). It is also concerned with relationships and practices that exist, beliefs and process that are on-going, effects that are being felt or trends that are developing. In addition, such approach tries to describe present conditions, events or systems based on the impressions or reactions of the respondents of the research (Creswell, 1994). Unlike quantitative research methods, which largely use a positivist epistemological position, qualitative research methods are based on an interpretivist epistemological position which stresses the understanding of the social world through an examination of the interpretation of that world by its participants. Interpretivism holds a different logic of research procedure from positivism. It seeks to understand human behavior, instead of just explaining it, which is what positivism seeks to do. The ontology of qualitative methods is constructivist, which contends that social phenomenon is continually being accomplished by social actors- they are produced through social interaction and are thus constantly being revised.[4] Basically, a descriptive research utilizes observations and surveys. It is for this particular reason that this approach was chosen by the researcher, whose intention is to gather first hand data. Moreover, this will allow for a flexible approach that when important new issues and questions arise at the duration of the study, a further investigation can be conducted. Another advantage is that with this approach, the research will be fast and somehow cost-effective. Aside from the qualitative finding method, secondary research will be conducted in this study. Sources in secondary research will include previous research reports, existing findings on journals and existing knowledge on books, newspapers, magazines and in the internet. The study will undertake an extensive review of the relevant literature on the subject of refugee flow, asylum policy, border control, state sovereignty, international humanitarian and human rights laws, and international refugee law. Basically, interpretation will be conducted which can account as qualitative in nature. STRUCTURE OF THE PAPER CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION In the first chapter, the researcher will introduce the aim of the thesis and formulates the research questions. The methodology of the thesis, a secondary research method and a qualitative, interpretivist, constructivist approaches will be outlined. Finally, the relevant theoretical and empirical literature will be reviewed. CHAPTER 2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This chapter will present the rationalist approach to regime theory, including neoliberal and neorealist theories. These theories are chosen as the theoretical framework for the thesis and will be used to evaluate the international mechanisms for refugee protection so as to discover whether or not the system constitutes an international regime considered as legal. CHAPTER 3. THE INTERNATIONAL REFUGEE PROTECTION MECHANISMS: AN INTERNATIONAL REGIME? The third chapter will firstly provide the definitions of the key terms discussed in the work. Then, it will discuss the historical background of the system. It will further discuss the three major components of the refugee protection mechanisms in the international system namely: the legal documents (various conventions, treaties and regional agreements), the protection bodies (UN bodies, human rights organizations, among others) and finally domestic refugee policy. The chapter will finally show how these three levels of protection are integrated to form the refugee protection mechanism. CHAPTER 4. THE REFUGEE PROTECTION MECHANISMS AS AN INTERNATIONAL REGIME. In this chapter, the researcher will attempt a discussion of the various types and components of international regime that exist in the international system. This discussion is then related to the international protection system in an attempt to prove whether or not the system constitutes an international regime, and what type of regime it is. It evaluates the role of the regime and its importance within the international system as a whole. CHAPTER 5. RESTRICTIVE MEASURES In this chapter, a description of the various restrictive measures that states practice in order to cut down the influx of refugees across national borders is presented. The reasons for, and effect of, the restrictive policies are outlined. The concept of state sovereignty in relations to states reasons for, and justification of, the use of restrictive policies will also be discussed in this chapter. CHAPTER 6. RESTRICTIVE POLICIES AND REGIME CHANGE This chapter will outline the neoliberal, neorealist and constructivist explanation of regime transformation. It will attempt to prove whether or not the use of restrictive measures by member states represents a change within, or of, the regime, or a weakening of the international regime of refugee protection. It then discuss the potential impact of the regime weakening on the regime itself, as well as for member states and for the refugees. CHAPTER 7. CONCLUSION This is the conclusive part of the work. The researcher will address the research question and attempts to answer them by providing a summary of the main conclusions about the refugee regimes type, strength and importance, and the role that it plays in the international system and how this is evolving. LITERATURE REVIEW (ANNOTATED) From the initial review of literature, the researcher found resource materials including the following books, legal documents, journals and articles which will provide insights in to the study: ALTERNATIVES, Turkish Journal of International Relations. Volume 5, number 12, spring and summer 2006. Countries have different approaches to refugee protection system. This article can be very useful for the research as it shows that one of the major differences in approaches is the receiving and/or transit status vis-a-vis the refugee flow. Using four European countries- Belgium, Slovenia, Greece and Turkey as cases, the article examines refugee policies and makes an evaluation of differences in refugee protection system that each country develops. Donnelly, Jack, International Human Rights: A Regime Analysis in International Organization, Vol. 40, No. 3 (summer, 1986), 599-642. Donnellys article will be used in order to discover what type of regime the mechanism for protection in the international system is. It is useful for regime analysis. Creswell, J. W. 2003. Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. SAGE. Thousand Oaks. USA. For the researchers choice of method of investigation, a reference to Creswells work on research design will provide great help. Guy S Goodwin-gill: (1996) The Refugee in International Law2nd Edition. Oxford University Press: Oxford. In this book, Goodwin-Gills provide an excellent overview of contemporary international refugee law, the three levels of protection, and the meanings and workings of the treaties and conventions on refugee protection. The book is widely recognized as the leading text on refugee law and as an excellent treatise of the international law on refugee, all the major problems are discussed in a general and lucid way. Hasenclever, Mayer and Rittberger (1997) Theories of International Regimes. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. This book is very essential in the writing of this thesis as it provides an overview of the rationalist approach to regime theory. The book examines in detail the neoliberal and neorealists distinct views on the origins, robustness and consequences of international regimes. Hathaway, James (ed) (1997) Reconceiving International Refugee Law. Martinus Mijhoff Publishers: The Hague. Hathaways Book, a collection of essays by leading migration scholars, will be helpful in that it offers a response to the concerns of many states that refugee protection has become no more than a back door route to permanent immigration. It explores the potential for a shift to a robust and empowering system of temporary asylum, supported by a pragmatic system of guarantees to share both the cost and human responsibilities. Helmut Breitmeier (2008). The Legitimacy of International Regimes. Ashgate Publishing Limited. England. How legitimate are outcomes, outputs and impacts of international regimes? In this book, theoretical and empirical chapters balance one another. The book explores the question whether problem-solving in international regimes is effective and equitable and whether regimes contribute that sates comply with international norms. It also analyses whether non-state actors can improve the output and input-oriented legitimacy of global governance systems. Michelle Foster (2007) International Refugee Law and Social Economic Rights. Refugee from Deprivation. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. A range of emerging refugee claims is beginning to challenge the boundaries of the refugee convention regime and question traditional distinction between economic migrants and political refugees. Fosters book will greatly help in identifying the conceptual and analytical challenges presented by socio-economic deprivation. It undertakes an assessment of the extent to which these challenges may be overcome by a creative interpretation of the refugee convention, consistent with correct principles of international treaty interpretation. Keohane, Robert O., International Institutions: Two Approaches in International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), 379-396. This is a journal article by Keohane that will also be helpful in formulating the rationalist approach to regime theory. Krasner, Stephen D. (ed) (1989) International Regimes. Cornell University Press: Cambridge This book by Krasner includes articles by various authors on neorealist and neoliberal approaches to regime theory. It also provides sharp criticism of regime theory and so therefore will help the research. Wendt, Alexander, Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics in International Organization, Vol. 46, No. 2 (Spring, 1992), 391-425 Wendts article will be useful in creating an alternative understanding to neorealism of how and why cooperation occurs in the international system of states. Aside, a variety of conventions, treaties, and agreements Will also be reviewed and referred to, including the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, the Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, the Cartagena Declaration on Refugees, the 1990 Dublin Convention, the 1990 Schengen Convention, the 1977 Treaty of Amsterdam, the 1950 European Convention on Human Rights, the 1981 African Charter on Human and peoples Rights and the 1948 Universal Declaration on Human Rights and its Protocols. These documents can be accessed in the annexes of Guy S, Goodwin-Gills book The Refugee in International Law2nd Edition. Oxford University Press: Oxford, 379-550. 2008 Global Trends: Refugee Asylum- seekers, Returnees, Internally Displaced and Stateless Persons (16 June 2009). James C. Hathaway (Ed.). Re-conceiving International Refugee Law. P. xvii Hasenclever, Mayer and Rittberger (1997) Theories of International Regimes.p.4 Creswell, J.W. (1994) Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. in Bryman (2001) Social Research Methods, Oxford University Press, Oxford, p.264

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Use of Foreshadowing in Anne Radcliffes The Italian Essays -- Anne Ra

Use of Foreshadowing in The Italian Anne Radcliffe incorporates many aspects of the Gothic into her novel, The Italian. In this book, one can find an exciting exploration of an exotic culture, a history of family secrets, subtle hints at supernatural forces at work, and Gothic architecture in both ruins and in the Inquisition prison. However, perhaps the most prominent feature of the Gothic used in this novel is the element of suspense. Radcliffe creates suspense in The Italian through a chain of foreshadowed events that lure the reader further and further into the story. Several of the most noticeable means of foreshadowing are found at the beginning of each chapter. From reading the quotes that Radcliffe uses to launch each chapter, the reader can tell more or less what the next few pages will have in store. An example of such a quote can be found at the beginning of the first chapter, "What is this secret sin; this untold tale, That art cannot extract, nor penance cleanse?" - Mysterious Mother (5). From reading this quote, one can already foresee that the story involves a great family secret, and this secret could very well pertain to a mother or a mother figure. It is also safe to assume that this secret has been revealed in confession. This assumption can also be supported by the information revealed in the preceding pages, in which the reader learns that the story he is reading is a written account of a confession made at a convent of the order of the Black Penitents. However, the secret is so great that even penance cannot cleanse the guilty. I t is amazing how much this short introductory quote reveals, especially since it is found so early in the novel. Radcliffe also reveals certain aspects of a ... ...s a mother's would. A few pages later, Olivia discovers the identity of Ellena (92-93). It is apparent that she is deeply affected when she learns Ellena's full name. These instances support the notion that Olivia and Ellena are connected, but the reader must wait until the end of the book to discover their relationship. In The Italian, Anne Radcliffe uses the technique of foreshadowing in such a way that the reader can make accurate assumptions about major points in the novel. However, Radcliffe is careful not to reveal too much information and merely makes suggestions as to what might occur later in the novel. This clever approach entices the reader and keeps him/her interested in the story. When the reader finally finishes the novel, the suspenseful mystery that Radcliffe has created all comes together and leaves the reader satisfied.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Essay example --

Ehud Olmert Ali Purtell Ehud Olmert, a former prime minister of Israel, was motivated to try and make peace among the Israelis and Arabs. Other leaders of Israel used violence to try and resolve the conflict but it only made things worse. Olmert wanted to use peace instead of violence to try and end the Arab-Israeli conflict. His efforts to achieve peace affected the Arab-Israeli conflictbut without long term results. Olmert has worked as the former prime minister of Jerusalem, Deputy Premier, Finance Minister, and Mayor of Jerusalem, giving him many years of experience and knowledge regarding world affairs like the Arab-Israeli conflict. Ehud Olmert met with Palestinian President, Mohamed Abbas, in September of 2008 and assured him that Olmert’s plan for peace would not require any military presence. This allowed Mohamed to see that Olmert really wanted to make peace. Ehud Olmert didn’t always use peaceful means to handle the Palestinians and other countries. When he was elected as Mayor for Israel in 1993, he supported the growth of Jewish settlements around Jerusalem blocking out the Palestinians and other religions. Later, when he was elected as prime minister, he realized the only way to resolve the conflict was to address it peacefully and through negotiations. Israel has been dealing with Palestinian pressures to give back the land that they consider â€Å"theirs† and other leaders have had different views on how to handle aggression from the Palestinians. Ehud Olmert’s views included handling the conflict with peace and not using violence. He suggested to Mohamed Abbas a convergence plan which centered around the idea that the Israeli people would be forced out of the West Bank which is an are... ...m. A part of the problem today in this conflict is the people not willing to change or go along with what their leaders enforce and their ideas. There have been many acts of aggression from the Jews themselves because they didn’t feel Palestine’s should receive land. Civil disobedience and acting out is a cause to making the conflict last longer. Overall, Olmert as a prime minister was successful in being consistent in using negotiations to try to create peace even though long term peace was never gained. He worked hard to come up with plans and agreements, and met with different important figures in the world regarding the Arab-Israeli conflict. Using peace has prevented some violence between the Palestinians and Israelis as well as other countries. While Olmert is not in office anymore, he still believes a peaceful approach is the answer to help end this conflict.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Examining Historical Document of the Pinkerton National Detective Agenc

Butch Cassidy and his gang of outlaws have had a profound effect on America during the late 1800s. Because of this infamous â€Å"Wild Bunch,† the famous Pinkerton National Detective Agency produced many wanted ads for these criminals. One of these timeless works was made by the Pinkerton Agency and ended up in the hands of my college's library. This piece of historical literature dates back to about hundred years ago which has descriptions of each of Butch Cassidy and others who rode with him on his adventurous, risk taking journeys around the country. This antique piece of paper is very significant for it’s time period and is in still decent shape. Other than some tears around the corners, you can still read the entire page without a problem. This document has aged well, but still has changed its color to a brownish-beige. It also looks as if it was in either a book or a newspaper made to notify Americans of the crazed outlaws on the loose. A printing press was used to make this notification for the Pinkerton Agency, which was an astounding invention of its time to speed up the process of getting newspapers out to the public. To track down the famed â€Å"Wild Bunch,† the Pinkertons set this document with detailed descriptions of each outlaw with their picture and name underneath it. This particular antique was produced on Opera House Block in Denver Colorado. With the Pinkerton’s report, this helped catch some of the most vicious outlaws of their time. There were many men in the gang that terrorized the wes tern frontier, but the most notorious six were named and described on the document. George Parker, Harry Longbaugh, Camilla Hanks, Harvey Logan, Ben Page 2 Kilpatrick, and William Carver were all mentioned with their... ...y stole $97.00. Another important name mentioned was Ben Kilpatrick who was a native Texan, but eventually Page 5 left home and ventured into Wyoming and Utah. This is where he met Elzy Lay, who was a good friend of Butch Cassidy. Lastly, was William Carver who was also a native Texan who went by the name â€Å"B.L.† Carver. He began his life working on a ranch as a cowboy, but soon turned to the malicious ways of Butch Cassidy. He met Butch Cassidy while at a hideout called the Robbers Roost in Utah and rode with them until his death in 1901. In conclusion, this reckless group of men were constantly a focal point of their capture by the famous Pinkerton National Detective Agency during the late 18th century. With this piece of profound literature, we know a little more about our past and what it was like for these men during the time of the old wild west.

Different Research Methods Essay

â€Å"When it comes to their health, workers always know best.† (Workers Health International Newsletter No. 42).† Analyse the different research methods that unions and workers use to identify ill health caused by work. Introduction The topic I have chosen to look into for this assignment will be â€Å"When it comes to their health, workers always know best.† (Workers Health International Newsletter No. 42).† Analyse the different research methods that unions and workers use to identify ill health caused by work. I have chosen to look into this subject to see what different research methods are out there and what kind of information we can gather from them. I will do this by analysing and evaluating each known method, and then establishing which is more suitable for my own workplace. I intend to be able to use some of these research methods on my members and in my workplace, to see if there are any potential hazards in the workplace. After trying out some of these research methods I will collate the data and if an issue is raised create a plan of action to eliminate the problem. I also intend to share my findings with my members and present this data at the next health and safety meeting. What types of research method is there? A simple research method would be to â€Å"look and listen† by this I mean observe your surroundings, listen to members concerns, check things like the accident book or has there been a number of claims? Another type of research can be to do comparisons between different things in the workplace for example does one area have more accidents then another or does an area have additional hazards compared to others. A really useful research method for trying to find out if there is a specific health problem with your work is body mapping. Body mapping is a way of identifying common patterns of health problems amongst workers in a particular workplace or doing the same job. Whilst it is not certain that any such common ailments are work-related, it highlights areas for further investigation. A similar technique is risk mapping/hazard mapping where instead of highlighting areas of pain on the body like a body map does this highlights risks on a map of the workplace. From this map you will be able to build up a clear picture of where the hazards lie in the workplace. One of the most popular types of research is to do a survey, this may be because there are lots of different ways you can do surveys and you can tailor them to be as specific as you want. You don’t even have to come up with the questionnaire yourself as there are a lot of pre made ones online which may fulfil your needs. Another research method is to examine records to see if you can find any anomalies or similarities in the data. Records can range from asbestos registers to pesticide passports. Pros and cons of research methods Body mapping One of the pros of body mapping is that it is a simple starting point to be able to identify health problems within the workforce. Another advantage is that it is very easy to set up, and very quick to be able to participate in, even those with disabilities and those who are not English speaking can partake, which should encourage people to take part. The results can be swiftly obtained, and are clear and easy to present to management. A strength of using this method is that it can raise health and safety awareness in the workplace, and then finally body mapping can be anonymous, hopefully encouraging more members to get involved. A weakness of the body mapping method is that it is only a starting point for investigation, and it is hard to pin down to work issues, and so you would need to follow it up with different research methods, for example: surveys and discussions to try and highlight what the hazard may be. A disadvantage is that all employees’ who have taken part would need to do the same job in order for the data to work or you have to do multiple body maps (the hazards may vary from job to job). Surveys One of the advantages of using the survey method is that it can be conveyed in multiple ways, such as email, internet, paper or post. This style of research makes it easy to target large populations of people. Another pro is that the survey can be as specific or general as you like, dependent upon the questions you wish to ask. You can ask open questions which will give you detailed responses, or closed questions which are quick to interpret data from and you will get fast results. By using this method you can repeatedly use the same survey over a period of time to assess any changes that may be taking place. A disadvantage of this method is that survey design often requires special skills from the researcher in sampling proper question design and analysis. Another weakness is open questions can create a lot of data which is time consuming to analyse and it may also put people off participating. Surveys might not be accessible to all members, such as foreign workers or people with disabilities. Another drawback is that it is difficult to get people to participate as it takes too much time to complete or they cannot be bothered. Risk mapping By using the risk mapping method, it can highlight to workers any potential hazards that they may be exposed to, and any physical, chemical or biological problems that might arise when doing the job. Workplace risk mapping is a technique where workers can get together to get these concerns down on paper. This approach takes the control away from experts like health and safety professionals, by using the knowledge of workers and acknowledging the essential contribution they make, and are developed from everyday experiences. Risk maps can be enhanced if the hazards are coded using colours or symbols, it may even be possible to match these codes to areas with body mapping results. An advantage of using this method is that it can allow workers to keep track of management’s activities to remedy the hazards the map has identified. A disadvantage of the risk mapping method is workers may lack interest in the process, and wish to ignore hazards in their work area, especially if they have been doing the job for a long time, not wishing to change from what they have been doing (they may be scared of change). A weakness can be seen to be employers not enforcing the findings of the risk mapping, therefore encouraging members to work unsafely. There could be an issue with members not wanting to take part due to a worry of pressure from management to ‘get the job done’. A weakness could be that if there is a lack of commitment from employers once issues have been highlighted, there could be a delay in the risk being removed or controlled. Conclusion and recommendations After analysing various types of research methods, it is clear that no method is perfect. It seems that depending upon the type of data required, this may determine which method is best to be rolled out. Even the possibility that one research method might not be enough to get all data required (the body mapping method may only be a starting point), and so more than one method may be suitable in certain cases. From analysing this data, when approaching the workforce it may be better to use more than one approach in order to accurately report potential risks to management. This approach will not only make the data more precise, but also make the case more conclusive. After looking into all the different research methods I intend to recommend that either the TU or the company, or both utilise some of the research methods, starting with body mapping and leading on from there to other techniques.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Gothic Subculture †Sinister or Harmless? Essay

â€Å"What are the worst dangers that threaten our children today? Satanism? Drugs? Homosexuality? A culture of violence? Heat exhaustion? What if there was a danger that included all of these? That danger is here, and its name is GOTH. † 1 Those words, taken from the website hosted by Parents American Religious Organizations Defending Youth which main purpose is to inform and warn parents against dangers related to Gothic subculture, best summarize the confusion around the phenomenon of being ‘Goth’. Is gothdom a sinister cult posing danger to the society or a harmless movement, one among many? The commonly negative reputation of the Gothic subculture, especially among parents and teachers, has its roots in stereotypes. ‘Stereotype’ is defined in the Webster’s New World Dictionary as â€Å"a fixed or conventional notion or conception, as of a person, group, idea, etc. , held by a number of people, and allowing for no individuality, critical judgment, etc. † Stereotypes are usually imposed on the group of people they are applied to by others who are not within the group but are instead critical of them, very often due to lack of understanding or fear. Thus stereotypes are simplified cutouts representing general ideas rather than real living human beings, depriving them of their exceptional individual features. Such attitude easily leads to intolerance, resentment and loss of communication between general society and the subculture, hiding the real truths of alive people behind the stereotypical fiction. Among many stereotypes related to Goths, one of the most common ones is obsession with death. The commonly held view is that they are antisocial outcasts attempting suicide or desiring to kill someone else. In reality, Goths’ fascination with everything related to death is not as superficial as it appears at first sight. Their â€Å"viewpoint on death is one of acceptance of the fate that awaits us all rather than ‘whistling past the graveyard’, denying death and hoping it will just go away. Goths accept death as a natural part of life, part of the natural balance of things. This does not mean, however, that Goths invite death by attempting suicide or homicide – instead they accept and respect death for what it is, and move on. â€Å"2 Although the notion of suicide is fascinating among them, it is not accepted as a solution to their own existential problems, but as an admitted failure to their emotions of despair, loss and loneliness. In this aspect it is the self-awareness and an attempt to overcome the fear of death, an attempt to pursue a critical analysis of their own proximity to death; a different attitude towards this problem, contrary to the one shown in tabloids and TV programmes, where the idea of dying is either ignored or deprived of its dignity. As Birgit Richard points out: â€Å"The Gothics are one of the most conspicuous subcultures because they work against the suppression of ageing with their deathly pale faces in a time when sun-studio tanned complexions are the epitome of health. They become the terror of a deathless producing and consuming culture which marginalizes the process of dying and bodily decay to be able to proclaim the ideal of perpetual youth. Putting death at the centre of their style and their lives becomes a provocation by a subcultural group of adolescents which cannot be forgiven by society. Youth has to look fresh and ‘tasty’; it is not supposed to walk around ‘dead’. In a society with an ever increasing average life expectancy, dealing with death is suitable only when a certain age has been reached. † Another stereotype commonly associated with Goths is that their culture is anti-Christian with its Satanic motifs, black clothing, occult jewellery and devilish music of Marilyn Manson. They are accused of the worship of Satan, dangerous rituals and blood-drinking. Being attracted to the idea of self-mutilation, they are proud of their scars and occult symbols carved with razor blades all over their bodies. The Gothic movement is considered dark and self-destructive, glorifying everything that is morbid, and degrading everything that is good. The truth hiding behind this stereotype is different. Although the rooms of the â€Å"blacks’ are designed in a special manner, e. g. containing small altars with accessories like grave-ribbons, crucifixes, grave lamps, candles and skulls, their purpose is not to serve as a place for black masses but to â€Å"reconstruct the dark atmosphere of the cemetery, its proximity to death, or serve as a cave that shelters from a threatening outside world. â€Å"3 The colour black which dominates the style of clothing does not stand for their attraction to Satan but expresses a sense of despair, ascetic isolation and is the symbolization of inevitable death. The same meaning is vital for hair dyed black, specific make-up with black eye-shadow, lipstick and nail polish, and a chalky white face. Since Goths are attracted to everything related to death, their favourite motifs in jewellery are skulls, skeletons and bones, which serve as memento more rather than provocative items. Other popular accessories, such as crucifixes, stars of David, ankh, the pentagram and the cross turned upside down, do not serve as symbols of Satanism but as distinguishing feature from the institutionalized church or a protective talisman against evil eye. â€Å"Symbolism rejected by as irrational by other parts of society enables them to express dissatisfaction with the institutionalized church and the completely rationalized modern civilization. â€Å"Also their favourite venue, cemetery, has a completely different function than the stereotypical one, considered as a place for morbid Satanic rituals, since it serves as a symbol of mortality, silence, isolation and mourning. To the majority of society Goths are plain deviants and worshippers of Marilyn Manson and other ‘dangerous’ music which inspired the tragic Columbine shootings 5. â€Å"The titles of the songs alone are enough to show just what kind of music this is: Gloomy Sunday, The Order of Death, Draining Faces, Laughing Pain, Haunted, Movement of Fear. These are dangerous songs, performed by dangerous bands. One band for example is called Type O Negative – a blood type, and clearly a reference to Vampirism. â€Å"6 While it may be true that many Goths enjoy Marilyn Manson’s music, almost all of them agree that he is not Goth as â€Å"the controversial shock-rock star with the satanic leanings and violence-tinged music has never been a part of their [Goths’] community, artistically or philosophically. â€Å"7 Besides, Manson probably borrowed from the media portrayal of the Gothic movement which predates his stardom by at least a decade, as its origin is usually placed in 1979. In conclusion, it must be said that evaluating the whole subculture by means of stereotypes may be more sinister than the community’s rules themselves as it shows no respect for the individual, leads to intolerance and finally creates a deep chasm between the general society and the Gothic community. It should not be forgotten that Goths have to cope with the same pressures that non-Goths encounter: social anxieties, family problems, every day failures and stresses. The only thing that differs is their way of dealing with those problems; a darker one and more introspective version of ‘normal’. Tolerance and understanding is what Goths long for, as is stated by one representative of the subculture: â€Å"One way or another, those of us in the Gothic community demand to exist with as many rights and as much respect as is given to any ‘normal’ human being. Our population are millions worldwide, and we laugh, cry, and live just like anyone else. We are your doctors, your counselors, your grocers, your teachers, your students, your librarians, your favourite authors, your fathers, your daughters, and your friends. We may choose to revel in the shadows, but we smile with those who would rather live in the light of day. Being Goth is not a ‘phase’, it is not dangerous, and it is not going anywhere. Everyone deserves a chance to simply be. This is all we ask: let us be. † BIBLIOGRAPHY Covelo, Benjamin. The Goth Music Death Machine. 28 May 2004:

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Lamb: The Gospel According to Biff, Christ’s Childhood Pal Chapter 30

Part VI Passion Nobody's perfect†¦. Well, there was this one guy, but we killed him. ANONYMOUS Sunday Joshua's mother and his brother James found us outside of the Golden Gate of Jerusalem, where we were waiting for Bartholomew and John, who were looking for Nathaniel and Philip to return with James and Andrew, who were off trying to find Judas and Thomas, who had been sent into the city to look for Peter and Maggie, who were looking for Thaddeus and Simon, who had been sent to look for a donkey. â€Å"You'd think they'd have found one by now,† Mary said. According to prophecy, Joshua was supposed to enter the city on the colt of a donkey. Of course, no one was going to find one. That was the plan. Even Joshua's brother James had agreed to be part of the conspiracy. He'd gone ahead to wait inside the gate, just in case one of the disciples had missed the point and actually came back with a donkey. About a thousand of Joshua's followers from Galilee had gathered on the road to the Golden Gate. They had lined the road with palm fronds for Joshua's entrance to the city, and they were cheering and singing hosannas all afternoon in anticipation of his triumphant entrance, but as the afternoon wore into evening, and no colt showed, the crowd gradually dispersed as everybody got hungry and went into the city to find something to eat. Only Joshua, his mother, and I were still waiting. â€Å"I was hoping you might talk some sense into him,† I said to Mary. â€Å"I've seen this coming for a long time,† Mary said. She wore her usual blue dress and shawl, and the usual light in her face seemed faded, not by age, but by grief. â€Å"Why do you think I sent for him two years ago?† It was true, she had sent Joshua's younger brothers Judah and Jose to the synagogue at Capernaum to bring him home, claiming he was mad, but Joshua hadn't even gone outside to meet them. â€Å"I wish you two wouldn't talk about me like I'm not here,† Joshua said. â€Å"We're trying to get used to it,† I said. â€Å"If you don't like it, then give up this stupid plan to sacrifice yourself.† â€Å"What do you think we've been preparing for all of these years, Biff?† â€Å"If I'd known it was this I wouldn't have helped. You'd still be stuck in a wine amphora in India.† He squinted to see through the gate. â€Å"Where is everyone? How hard can it be to find one simple ass?† I looked at Joshua's mother, and although there was pain in her eyes she smiled. â€Å"Don't look at me,† she said. â€Å"No one on my side of the family would ever sacrifice a straight line like that.† It was too easy, so I let it go. â€Å"They're all at Simon's house in Bethany, Josh. They aren't coming back tonight.† Joshua didn't say a word. He just climbed to his feet and walked off toward Bethany. â€Å"There is nothing you can do to stop this from happening!† Joshua screamed at the apostles, who were gathered in the front room of Simon's house. Martha ran from the room crying when Joshua glared at her. Simon looked at the floor, as did the rest of us. â€Å"The priest and the scribes will take me, and put me on trial. They will spit on me and scourge me and then they will kill me. I will rise from the dead on the third day and walk among you again, but you cannot stop what must happen. If you love me, you will accept what I'm telling you.† Maggie got up and ran out of the house, snatching the communal purse from Judas as she went. The Zealot started to rise to go after her but I pushed him back down on his cushion. â€Å"Let her go.† We all sat there in silence, trying to think of something to do, something to say. I don't know what everyone else was thinking, but I was still trying to formulate some way for Joshua to make his point without giving his life. Martha returned to the room with wine and cups and served each of us in turn, not looking at Joshua when she filled his cup. Joshua's mother followed her back out of the room, I presumed to help her prepare supper. In time, Maggie came back, sliding through the door and going directly to Joshua, where she sat down at his feet. She took the communal purse out of her cloak and from it she pulled a small alabaster box, the sort that was used to store the precious ointments that women used to anoint the bodies of the dead at burial. She tossed the empty purse to Judas. Without a word, she broke the seal on the box and poured the ointment on Joshua's feet, then untied her long hair and began to wipe the oil from his feet with it. The rich aroma of spices and perfume filled the room. In an instant Judas was on his feet and across the room. He snatched the box of ointment off the floor. â€Å"The money from this could have fed hundreds of the poor.† Joshua looked up at the Zealot and there were tears in his eyes. â€Å"You'll always have the poor, Judas, but I'm only here for a short while longer. Let her be.† â€Å"But†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Let her be,† Joshua said. He held out his hand and Judas slammed the alabaster box into it, then stormed out of the house. I could hear him shouting out in the street, but I couldn't make out what he was saying. Maggie poured the rest of the oil on Joshua's head and drew patterns on his forehead with her finger. Joshua tried to take her hand but she pulled it away from him and stepped back until he dropped his hand. â€Å"A dead man can't love,† she said. â€Å"Be still.† When we followed Joshua to the Temple the next morning, Maggie was nowhere to be seen. Monday On Monday Joshua led us through the Golden Gate into Jerusalem, but this time there were no palm fronds laid on the road and no one was singing hosannas. (Well, there was this one guy, but he was always singing hosannas at the Golden Gate. If you gave him a coin he'd stop for a while.) â€Å"It would be nice to be able to buy a little something for breakfast,† Judas said. â€Å"If the Magdalene hadn't spent all of our money.† â€Å"Joshua smells nice, though,† Nathaniel said. â€Å"Don't you think Joshua smells nice?† Sometimes you find yourself grateful for the most unlikely things. Right then, when I saw Judas grit his teeth and the vein stand out on his forehead, I said a quick prayer of thanks for Nathaniel's na;vet. â€Å"He does smell nice,† said Bartholomew. â€Å"It makes one want to reassess one's values regarding the material comforts.† â€Å"Thank you, Bart,† said Joshua. â€Å"Yes, there's nothing like a good-smelling man,† said John dreamily. Suddenly we were all very uncomfortable and there was a lot of throat-clearing and coughing and we all walked a few paces farther apart. (I haven't told you about John, have I?) Then John started to make a great and pathetic show of noticing the women as they passed. â€Å"Why, that little heifer would give a man some strong sons,† John said in a booming and falsely masculine voice. â€Å"A man could surely plant some seed there, he could.† â€Å"Please shut up,† James said to his brother. â€Å"Maybe,† said Philip, â€Å"you could have your mother come over and tell that woman to cleave unto you.† Everyone snickered, even Joshua. Well, everyone except James. â€Å"You see?† he said to his brother. â€Å"You see what you've started? You little nancy.† â€Å"There's a nubile wench,† exclaimed John unconvincingly. He pointed to a woman who was being dragged toward the city gates by a group of Pharisees, her clothes hanging in shreds on her body (which indeed appeared to be nubile, so credit to John for working outside of his element). â€Å"Block the road,† Joshua said. The Pharisees came up to our human blockade and stopped. â€Å"Let us pass, Rabbi,† the oldest of them said. â€Å"This woman has been caught in the act of adultery this very day and we're taking her out of the city to be stoned, as is the law.† The woman was young and her hair fell in dirty curls around her face. Terror had twisted her face and her eyes were rolled back in her head, but an hour ago she had probably been pretty. Joshua crouched and began writing in the dust at his feet. â€Å"What's your name?† he asked. â€Å"Jamal,† said the leader. I watched Joshua write the man's name, then next to it a list of sins. â€Å"Wow, Jamal,† I said. â€Å"A goose? I didn't even know that was possible.† Jamal dropped the adulteress's arm and stepped back. Joshua looked up at the other man who was holding the woman. â€Å"And your name?† â€Å"Uh, Steve,† said that man. â€Å"His name is not Steve,† said another man in the crowd. â€Å"It's Jacob.† Joshua wrote â€Å"Jacob† in the dust. â€Å"No,† said Jacob. He let go of the woman, pushing her toward us. Then Joshua stood up and took the stone from the man nearest him, who surrendered it easily. His attention was focused on the list of sins written in the dirt. â€Å"Now let us stone this harlot,† Joshua said. â€Å"Whoever of you is without sin, cast the first stone.† And he held out the stone to them. They gradually backed away. In a moment they had all gone back the way they had come and the adulteress fell to Joshua's feet and hugged his ankles. â€Å"Thank you, Rabbi. Thank you so much.† â€Å"That's okay,† said Joshua. He lifted her to her feet. â€Å"Now go, and sin no more.† â€Å"You really smell good, you know that?† she said. â€Å"Yeah, thanks. Now go.† She started off. â€Å"I should make sure she gets home okay,† I said. I started off after her, but Joshua caught the back of my tunic and pulled me back. â€Å"You missed the ‘sin no more' part of my instructions?† â€Å"Look, I've already committed adultery with her in my heart, so, you know, why not enjoy it?† â€Å"No.† â€Å"You're the one who set the standards. By those rules, even John committed adultery with her in his heart, and he doesn't even like women.† â€Å"Do too,† said John. â€Å"To the Temple,† Joshua said, pressing on. â€Å"Waste of a perfectly good adulteress, if you ask me.† In the outer court of the Temple, where the women and the Gentiles were allowed to go, Joshua called us all together and began to preach the kingdom. Each time he would get started, a vendor would come by barking, â€Å"Get your doves. Get your sacrificial doves. Pure as the driven snow. Everybody needs one.† Then Joshua would begin again and the next vendor would come by. â€Å"Unleavened bread! Get your unleavened bread! Only one shekel. Piping hot matzo, just like Moses ate on the way out of Egypt, only fresher.† And a little girl who was lame was brought to Joshua and he started to heal her and ask about her faith when†¦ â€Å"Your denariis changed to shekels, while you wait! No amount too large or small. Drachmas to talents, talents to shekels – all your money changed while you wait.† â€Å"Do you believe that the Lord loves you?† Joshua asked the little girl. â€Å"Bitter herbs! Get your bitter herbs!† cried a vendor. â€Å"Dammit all!† Joshua screamed in frustration. â€Å"You're healed, child, now get out of here.† He waved off the little girl, who got up and walked for the first time in her life, then he slapped a dove vendor, ripped the top off his cage of birds, and released a cloud of doves into the sky. â€Å"This is a house of prayer! Not a den of thieves.† â€Å"Oh no, not the moneychangers,† Peter whispered to me. Joshua grabbed a long low table where men were changing a dozen currencies into shekels (the only coin allowed for commerce inside the Temple complex) and he flipped it over. â€Å"Oh, that's it, he's fucked,† Philip said. And he was. The priests took a big percentage from the moneychangers. He might have slid by before, but now he'd interfered with their income. â€Å"Out, you vipers! Out!† Joshua had taken a coil of rope from one of the vendors and was using it as a scourge to drive the vendors and the moneychangers out of the Temple gates. Nathaniel and Thomas had joined in Joshua's tirade, kicking at the merchants as they scampered away, but the rest of us sat staring or ministered to those who had come to hear Joshua speak. â€Å"We should stop this,† I said to Peter. â€Å"You think you could stop this?† Peter nodded to the corner of the courtyard, where at least twenty priests had come out from the Inner Temple to watch the fracas. â€Å"He's going to bring down the wrath of the priests on all of us,† Judas said. He was looking at the Temple guards, who had stopped pacing the walls and were watching the goings-on below in the courtyard. To Judas' credit, he, Simon, and a few of the others had managed to calm the small crowd of the faithful who had gathered to be blessed and healed before Joshua's tantrum. Beyond the walls of the Temple we could see the Roman soldiers staring down from the battlements of Herod the Great's old palace, which the governor commandeered during feast weeks when he brought the legions to Jerusalem. The Romans didn't enter the Temple unless they sensed insurrection, but if they entered, Jewish blood would be spilled. Rivers of it. â€Å"They won't come in,† Peter said, a tiny note of doubt in his voice. â€Å"They can see that this is a Jewish matter. They don't care if we kill each other.† â€Å"Just watch Judas and Simon,† I said. â€Å"If one of them starts with that no-master-but-God thing, the Romans will come down like an executioner's blade.† Finally, Joshua was out of breath, soaked in sweat, and barely able to swing the coil of rope he was carrying, but the Temple was clear of merchants. A large crowd had started to follow him, shouting at the vendors as Joshua drove them out of the Temple. The crowd (probably eight hundred to a thousand people) was the only thing that kept the priests from calling the guards down on Joshua right then. Josh tossed the rope aside and led the crowd back to where we had been watching in horror. â€Å"Thieves,† he said to us breathlessly as he passed. Then he went to a little girl with a withered arm who had been waiting beside Judas. â€Å"Pretty scary, huh?† Joshua said to her. She nodded. Joshua put his hands over her withered arm. â€Å"Are those guys in the tall hats coming over here?† She nodded again. â€Å"Here, can you make this sign with your finger?† He showed her how to stick out her middle finger. â€Å"No, not with that hand, with this one.† Joshua took his hand away from her withered arm and she wiggled her fingers. The muscle and tendons had filled out until it looked identical to her other arm. â€Å"Now,† Joshua said, â€Å"make that sign. That's good. Now show it to those guys behind me with the tall hats. That's a good girl.† â€Å"By whose authority do you perform these healings,† said one of the priests, obviously the highest-ranking of the group. â€Å"No master – † Simon began to shout but he was cut off by a vicious blow to the solar plexus from Peter, who then pushed the Zealot to the ground and sat on him while furiously whispering in his ear. Andrew had come up behind Judas and seemed to be delivering a similar lecture without benefit of the body blow. Josh took a little boy from his mother's arms and held him. The boy's legs waved in the air as if they had no bones at all. Without looking away from the boy, Joshua said, â€Å"By what authority did John baptize?† The priests looked around among themselves. The crowd moved in closer. We were in Judea, John's territory. The priests knew better than to challenge John's authority under God in front of a crowd this size, but they certainly weren't going to confirm it for Joshua's sake, either. â€Å"We can't say at this time,† said the priest. â€Å"Then I can't say either,† said Joshua. He stood the little boy on his feet and held him steady as the boy's legs took his full weight, probably for the first time ever. The boy wobbled like a newborn colt and Joshua caught him and laughed. He took the boy's shoulders and helped him walk back to his mother, then he turned on the priests and looked at them for the first time. â€Å"You would test me? Test me. Ask me what you will, you vipers, but I will heal these people and they shall know the word of God in spite of you.† Philip had moved up behind me during this speech and he whispered, â€Å"Can't you knock him out or something with your methods from the East? We have to get him out of here before he says any more.† â€Å"I think we're too late, John,† I said. â€Å"Just don't let the crowd disperse. Go out into the city and bring more. The crowd is his only protection now. And find Joseph of Arimathea too. He might be able to help if this gets out of hand.† â€Å"This isn't out of hand?† â€Å"You know what I mean.† The inquisition went on for two hours, with the priests concocting every verbal trap they could think of, and Joshua wiggling out sometimes, and blundering through at others. I looked for some way to get Joshua out of the Temple without him being arrested, but the more I looked, the more I noticed that the guards had moved down off the walls and were hovering around the gates to the courtyard. Meanwhile the chief priest droned on: â€Å"A man dies and leaves no sons, but his wife marries his brother, who has three sons by his first wife†¦[and on] The three of them leave Jericho and head south, going three point three furlongs per hour, but they are leading two donkeys, which can carry two†¦[and on] So the Sabbath ends, and they are able to resume, adding on the thousand steps allowed under the law†¦and the wind is blowing southwest at two furlongs per hour†¦[and on] How much water will be required for the journey? Give your answer in firkins.† â€Å"Five,† Joshua said, as soon as they stopped speaking. And all were amazed. The crowd roared. A woman shouted, â€Å"Surely he is the Messiah.† â€Å"The Son of God has come,† said another. â€Å"You guys aren't helping,† I shouted back at them. â€Å"You didn't show your work, you didn't show your work,† chanted the youngest of the priests. Judas and Matthew had been scratching out the problem on the paving stones of the courtyard as the priest recited, but they had long since lost track. They looked up and shook their heads. â€Å"Five,† Joshua repeated. The priests looked around among themselves. â€Å"That's right, but that doesn't give you authority to heal in the Temple.† â€Å"In three days, there will be no Temple, for I'll destroy it, and you nest of vipers with it. And three days after that, a new Temple shall be built in honor of my father.† And then I grabbed him around the chest and started dragging him toward the gate. The other apostles followed the plan and moved around us in a wedge. Beyond that, the crowd pressed in. Hundreds moved along with us. â€Å"Wait, I'm not done!† Joshua yelled. â€Å"Yes you are.† â€Å"Surely the true king of Israel has come to bring forth the kingdom,† one woman shouted. Peter smacked her on the back of the head. â€Å"Stop helping.† By the sheer mass of the crowd we were able to get Joshua out of the Temple and through the streets to Joseph of Arimathea's house. Joseph let us in and led us to the upper room, which had a high arched stone ceiling, rich carpets on the floors and walls, piles of cushions, and a long low table for dining. â€Å"You're safe here, but I don't know for how long. They've already called a meeting of the Sanhedrin.† â€Å"But we just left the Temple,† I said. â€Å"How?† â€Å"You should have let them take me,† Joshua said. â€Å"The table will be set for the Passover feast of the Essenes,† Joseph said. â€Å"Stay here for supper.† â€Å"Celebrate the Passover early? Why?† John asked. â€Å"Why celebrate with the Essenes?† Joseph looked away from Joshua when he answered. â€Å"Because at the Essenes' feast, they don't kill a lamb.†