Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Qualities of an Effective Principal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Qualities of an Effective Principal - Essay Example One thing about a principal is that he can not be a specialist in every subject, but he should provide the students with a broader curriculum which will enhance their knowledge. The supervision of teachers is also an important part of the job. The principal should be able to motivate the teachers to do their best, provide them with opportunities to grow in the fields and initiate workshops for them. The environment created by the principal’s presence should foster learning for all people who are part of that institution. This learning should be productive and can also be made exciting for all parties, new techniques and practical application of the knowledge will interest the students more. The principal should include himself in the daily activities of the school, by observing the children inside and outside the classroom. The principal’s attitude should be approachable so that students can easily come to him with their problems. The students should not feel awkward and be at ease around the principal. If possible and on going training program should be part of the services provided to both the students and the teachers. According to Hoy and Tarter, â€Å"The principal of a healthy school is a dynamic leader. In healthy schools, the principal supports the teacher, is reflective, and provides high standards for performance.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Differentiating Between Market Structures Essay Example for Free

Differentiating Between Market Structures Essay There are many TV service providers available in the U. S; however there are only two companies that offer services via satellite. Dish operates within the monopolistic competition market. Dish has been in business since the early 1980’s and has gradually worked its way up to become one of the leading satellite provider and innovator of new technology. In 2013 they offer service to over 14 million subscribers nationwide. This market in which it competes is where all firms have some market power, which controls the market price. They produce the same product as Direct TV and no other provider is in the same market. They know all competitor prices and services in order to be able to compare services and offer the best value to potential customers. Within the market structure buyers/consumers have the ability to know the prices of both companies so that they can decide which one will be better for them. In this market customers have the ability to leave the service at any point in time. They can choose to cancel services if they are not content with the quality of the product, some may leave with no penalty while others may have to pay a penalty for the cancelation. Dish is a leader in the TV industry when it comes to equipment, programming and pricing,. They have to maintain a level of competitiveness in order to compete with other providers. Dish like any other company, is looking to maximize profit and will provide service that is appealing to the customer in order to increase customer base in turn increasing profit. Differentiating Between Market Structures In the pay TV industry, Dish has managed to out rank Direct TV in many areas such as customer service, equipment technology and pricing for programming. Dish is a company that offers promotions to all buyers/consumers in order to make the sign up more enticing. The market structure in which Dish operates would be the monopolistic competition. Within the TV industry that Dish operates there is only one other company that is included, Direct TV. These two companies offer similar products and customers can choose whom they do service with. It is ideal for Dish to compete in this market because there are only two companies within the same industry. This market structure is suitable for Dish because it provides more opportunity to maximize profit due to the competition. Dish has more availability to customers and the opportunity to be able to increase customer rate in turn increasing the profit due to the fact that there are only two service providers. It cannot be in a monopoly market because there is another company that provides the same service or product. It also does not have extremely high prices or excessive barriers to obtain services. They always provide affordable prices that will also benefit the company to increase profit. (Monopolistic Competition, 2013). Dish has many promotions that are being offered to obtain new customers and also retain the existing consumers. The company offers upfront discounts as a sign up bonus to gain the attention of those prospective consumers. It offers up to $30 credits up front on the programming for the first twelve months of service. With a qualifying promotion the customer will have the activation and the equipment fees waived saving the consumer over $200. When existing customers look for any type of promotion they will have anything from discounts for a few months up to free programming. Even if the customers receive free programming Dish will still be making a profit because of all the other programming, equipment and services they provide. A company is making profit with any service it provides because it continues to sell its service because it continues to sell its services to consumers. The strategies for Dish to obtain new customers are a good way for the company to increase profit and obtain new customer base. Even though the company is making a profit off all the services they provide there are some changes to the promotions. For example, on the promotions that are offered to new customers I would recommend that they make the qualification process a little easier. They could reduce the credit score criteria and make it less of a hassle to qualify for Dish. There are some promotions for those customers that do not qualify for the highest promotion but the fees are much higher. They must pay for the activation fee plus the equipment fees. This can get expensive depending on the equipment the customer chooses. With the qualification being so strict many potential customers will be swayed to not obtain services. With the upfront discounts there should be on extension in the time they are offered but reducing the amount being given. For some of the customers that qualify may receive a credit up to $30 other may get credits ranging from $10 to $25 for the first twelve months of service. If the company reduces the amount given to customers and extends the time allowed for the credit more customers would be content and more likely continue with Dish service. ( Dish Network L. l. c. , 2013). There are customers that leave the service due to the credits ending and seeing an increase in the statements. Some of the consumers do not take into consideration any penalty for early termination. Customers will keep looking for the best deal that they can possibly obtain. If we provide more options on the discounts Dish would be able to retain more customers in turn increasing customer base. Another recommendation that would be made to Dish would be that they make upgrade on equipment more feasible and less expensive for consumers. For those customers that want different equipment than the one that was installed. In some cases there would be a fee to upgrade the equipment the customer is deciding to obtain. The fees can range anywhere between $0 up to $300 with a twenty four month commitment. Of those customers some may find the fees excessive and will decide to keep what they have or go with a different provider. This is preventing Dish from obtaining more revenue and increasing profit. For every company the main focus is to maximize profit. They have many different options in order to do so. Dish operates in a monopolistic competition market where there are only two companies that offer similar services. In this market Dish offers many promotions for potential customers as well as existing customers. The consumers are allowed to leave services at any point during the service period. Some may leave with no penalty and other with a penalty due to breaking a commitment. Dish, even with all the discounts, manages to still increase profit because of all the other services that Dish offers. They make money off of programming, equipment, internet services, online service, and phone service and with the company blockbuster that was recently purchased by dish. With Dish and Direct TV in the same market and no other satellite competitor they are allowed to place their own market power when it comes to price. They compete with each other for all potential consumers as well as existing customers. Each company wants as much of a customer base as possible in order to increase profitability. They will go to great lengths to obtain those consumers and increase profitability.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Cystic Fibrosis :: essays research papers

For a child with cystic fibrosis life is mostly a series of respitory infections doctors visits and medications. Cystic fibrosis causes a build up of mucus in th lungs making breathing difficult . The thick mucus coats the hairlike projections lining air passage weakening the bodys immune system .Excess mucus interfers with the functioning of other oragns too.In the liver and pancreas mucus blocks the flow of the digestive enzymes in the intestine so food is not digested properly. Worn down by the repeated bouts of illness a cystic fibrosis patient rarely lives beyond his or her twenties. Cystic fibrosis is most common inherited disorder among Caucasian people. The disease which begins in infancy afflicts more than 25,000 Americans and causes more than 500 deaths every year. Forty years ago the average life span of a cystic fibrosis patient was five years .Today improved medical therapies and nurtrient rich diets have enabled cystic fibrosis suffers to survive into adulthood. Researc h into the cause of cystic fibrosis reads like a detective story. One clue is that cystic fibrosis patients have excess amounts of sodium and chloride in their sweat making it vey salty . At the University of North Carolina researchers found that salt imbalance caues thick mucus to accumulate in the patients lungd. High level of salt in lung cells draw water out of the mucus causing it to thicken.The level of salt in a cell is determained by the movement of ions across the cell membrane.Ions are carried across call memebranes by protein channels embedded in the cell membrane. Since the stucture and functions of proteins are determained by genes problems with ion transport can be assumed to have a genetic basis. In 1989 an American Canadian research team found thre defect in the gene called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene ,produces a protein that usually helps maintain normal levels of chloride. In about 60% of cystic fibrosis pateints the protein made by the CFTR gene is missing an amino acid called phenylalanine

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Media usage

I have attached a copy of my media log for the week of May 14-21, 2007. Over the last week, I spent: 3 hours and 25 minutes online, 90 minutes watching a DVD, 15 hours and 33 minutes watching television, 4 hours and 45 minutes reading, 1 hour and 13 minutes reading magazines, 17 minutes reading the local paper, and 1 hour and 21 minutes using Blackberry.   The log shows a marked preference for foreign media, with the possible exception of my Blackberry and the Toronto Star, which I use to keep up with friends and local events respectively.   Even though the Internet is used to accomplish everything from communications to entertainment, it is still strange that television places first in my personal â€Å"Most Popular Medium† contest. It is such an old form, first distributed widely in the 1950s.   Yet, I spend more time watching it, than e-mailing, checking on friends at Facebook, or watching news clips on CNN.   Perhaps it retains its popularity because of its versatility.   In Television Culture, we learn that â€Å"social change does occur, and television is a part of this movement†(Fiske, 45).  Ã‚   Because it keeps changing to keep up with the important issues of a particular time, television ensures its relevance and future existence. Up until now, I have not realized how much time I spent watching television—not unusual since many people from all walks of life lament the amount of time people spend on television.   I notice that I haven’t recorded any time listening to the radio, iPod, or a CD.   Maybe music has been pushed into the unconscious or we have come to the point where radio is no longer a medium of note.   With the advent of satellite radio, the mp3 player, podcasting, and Russian sites selling music at a fraction of the price, there would be little reason to maintain a radio, with the possible exception of warning the population if disaster strikes. The newspaper is also becoming more overlooked as people switch to CNN Online and her sister sites.   In order for newspapers to remain competitive, they need to take the focus off of world events and concentrate on covering the local area extensively.   Such close area coverage will never be found on an international news site such as BBC or CNN. While I spend a moderate amount of time on social sites like Facebook, it has not replaced telephone and in-person conversations.   While my weekly telephone/text conversations seem to pale in comparison to my online time, face-to-face interaction is preferred. The second most used medium in this study is the book—one of the earliest mediums for disseminating information in the world.   However, book sales today are the direct result of successful multi-media campaigns.   I’ve started reading The Secret by Rhonda Byrne—an Australian author with the grand ambition to change the world. She proposes to do this by putting together a panel of successful people to educate people about the power of thought; that one can make his dreams come true provided he avoids thinking about what he does not want.   Because more people favor television and Internet sources over books, the writers of The Secret produced a DVD, advertised on the Internet, magazines, and appeared on Oprah.   Because of this successful multi-media campaign, it had reached #1 on Amazon’s bestseller’s list.  Ã‚  Ã‚   The Harry Potter Novels and other Law of Attraction clones are taking this approach to boost sales. It is important to keep up with the world at large and Canadian television imports many American shows such as the Oprah Winfrey Show, the Dr. Phil Show, The View, Girlfriends, and The Bachelor. With such wide exposure to American media, it is little wonder why Western Canadian and US culture are so similar. Works Cited Fiske, John. Television Culture. NY: Routledge,1987

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

America’s Women Suffrage Movement in Unit two

In unit two, American women made history by enduring the longest women political movement in America. One political issue they faced and which led to the movement was the denial of a right to suffrage which means they had no right to vote in general elections. They occupied the traditional position in the society and had no say in the running of the government. They were to be subjective to men and remain stuck in domestic chores. An attempt to defy from this was met with utter hostility. In response to these issues, women in America organized groups aimed at garnering for the women rights and recognition in the society.Most prevalent were the women suffrage movement groups which sought to secure the right for women in America to vote in the general elections. The outcome of that was severe opposition both from the society and the government before the nineteenth amendment which was eventually passed to give women the right to suffrage. Many would describe 1877 to 1920 as the age in which America was being shaped into a modern world. This period was a fascinating as well as a turbulent one as new discoveries and innovations kept the American economy advancing. Government institutions received a major facelift and its functions became more specialized.It is during this time that the advancement in labor took a major turn and the capital grew at a high rate following technological advancement and increase in trade and business. The women however still felt economically and politically oppressed as they continued being deprived of an opportunity to participate in these exciting developments. Their roles rotated around domestic chores and there were little chances of working or even obtaining some education. This paper will address the issues that women faced and the formation of the women suffrage movement to campaign for women rights.Analysis The political as well as social issues facing the women could have been said to be oppressive. Their voice was irrelevant as far as the society was concerned and therefore they did not have to vote during the general elections (Keller, 2003). Their place was in domestic affairs and had little if any chance to acquire an education. When it came to work, women were discriminated against and they could not take up jobs such as teaching and preaching (Keller, 2003). A few elite women felt that enough was enough and they were determined to end this once and for all.Women rights organizations were set around America to address these issues. The three major organizations that undertook the campaign for women suffrage included the National Women Suffrage Association, the American Women Suffrage Association and the Congressional Union for Women Suffrage Association (Kerber and De Hart, 2000). The introduction of these organizations marked the beginning of a contentious fight that would eventually see women cast their votes in general elections by 1920. It was not an easy fight and numerous challenges faced the movement from the beginning.Women leaders were arrested and subjected to torture in the arms of policemen during demonstrations (Crawford, 2001). Their propositions were constantly rejected by the Senate and men formed anti-suffrage movements to stop the women from campaigning. The National Union Opposed to Women Suffrage was also an obstacle to the developments. However, the women finally met their objective when the Senate eventually voted for the nineteenth amendment in 1920 which would allow women to vote in the general elections (Du Bois, 1999). Background of the women suffrage movementThe birth of the women suffrage movement can be traced back to 1848 during the Seneca Falls convection in New York (Joannou, 1998). However, it was not until 1869 that the first women suffrage organization was formed. The Seneca convection had been organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton out of the desire to fight for the rights of women in the American society (Joannou, 1999). The two women had met in the World Anti-slavery Convection where together with other women were denied a chance to talk. Enraged, the two decided that there needed to be movement to fight for human rights.The discussions at the convection were centered on the notion that all women and men are created equally and there is no basis for women to be excluded from the voting process (Evans, 1989). The women suffrage movement had a clear cut objective; they intended to obtain a right to vote or suffrage for all the women in the United States. As it was during that period up until 1920 women were left out in the nation's decision making process because they were not allowed to choose the leaders that they wanted in the government (Frost-Kappman, 2005).Other objectives of the movement included equality in access to education and the right to earn a living through taking up jobs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony became the leading activists in this movement which questioned the subjug ation of women both politically and economically yet the state claimed that America was a democratic society (De Bois, 1999). Together with others such as Mary Ann McClintick, Lucretia Mott, Anna Howard, Carrie Catt, Lucy Stone and Julia Howe among others, they were determined that this fight would eventually be won (Adams, 2003).As way to publicize these outcries, The National Women Suffrage Association (NWSA) was formed in 1869 to campaign against the injustices to women. American Women Suffrage Association (AWSA) was also been established in the same year by Julia Howe and Lucy Stone (Adams, 2003). Each of these organizations worked independently with NWSA fighting for both women rights and women suffrage rights. AWSA on the other hand concentrated on the voting rights only. These two women groups conducted many campaigns and demonstrations in their bid to pressure the state to amend the constitution and accord women the right to vote.An attempt to pass an amendment to allow wome n suffrage in 1878 was severely thwarted when the proposal was rejected by the congress (Crawford, 2001). After conducting several negotiations following the realization that they could be better off working together, NWSA and AWSA joined to form NAWSA (National American Women Suffrage). Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Antony remained influential leaders in the newly formed organization with Stanton becoming its first president between 1890 and 1892 (Bell, 1911). Susan Anthony became president in 1892 and on her retirement in 1900 she was succeeded by Carrie Chapman Catt.Anna Howard took presidency in 1904 from Catt and was later succeeded by Catt who led the organization again from 1915 to 1920 (Bell, 1911). An organization known as Women's Social Political Union came to the limelight in 1913 formed by Alice Paul, Olympia Brown and Lucy Burns (Evans, 1989). Paul had just returned from studying in Britain intended to introduce military tactics such as the ones practiced by the Women's S ocial Political Union. Members started picketing and demonstrating outside State House which led to many arrests and a seven months imprisonment for Paul (Evans, 1989).She was however released after going on a hunger strike. All in all, the women suffrage movement went through its ups and downs until the desired objective was finally met. The Determined Fight The women suffrage movement encountered determined resistance as men vowed to do everything possible to stop the women. They believed that if the women got the right to vote then they would be equal to them; a reality they were not ready to accept. The convectional belief was that men should dominate the public sphere while women's sphere was confined in the domestic setting 9Adams, 2003).Women campaigners were treated with hostility by men who opposed this movement. A good example is when women who appeared in the parade that Alice Paul organized to seek national support for the amendment on Pennsylvania Avenue (Keller, 2003). This was the day before the inauguration of President Wilson and thousands of male spectators turned the peaceful parade into a riot as they tried to break into the marchers' ranks. Many were not lucky as they got hurt while trying to escape (Keller, 2003). This kind of incident just goes on to show the difference in culture between now and then.Men were willing to endanger the lives of their sisters and their wives so as to retain the power while women remained the objects of oppression and the direct victims of inequality. From the position given to women in those days, we can deduce that culture has evolved over time leading to the recognition of women as part of the society. Women now have rights equal to those of men as provided for in the constitution. This is what the leaders of AWSA wanted so much even though some like Susan Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton never got to enjoy the fruits of their labor (Joannou, 1998).The Pennsylvania Avenue incident coupled with others such as jailing of leaders and the force-feeding that they were subjected to in 1917 aroused huge public support from sympathizers and well wishers and is said to have attracted more male supporters for the movement (Adams, 2003). Several women did not support the movement as well and they maintained that women should keep off from politics since they were too beyond their understanding (Adams, 2003). Some claimed that such involvement would only serve to undermine their spiritual and moral roles.This can probably be as a result of the way women were brought up knowing that their rightful place is in the domestic arena. As a result, deviating from this would result in going against the rules of nature and consequently against rightful morality. Josephine Dodge whose husband was an influential New York capitalist is the one who introduced the biggest movement against women suffrage. This was the National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage which came into being in 1911 (Kerber and De Hart , 2000). The movement called for women anti-suffragists to influence their men behind the scenes consequently influencing policy.This was a major throwback to the women suffrage movement which aimed at feigning collective support from all women so as to maximize the chances of accomplishing their objectives. The campaign was an uncertain and slow process as resistance continued to face the women suffrage movement (Adams, 2003). The effects however were being felt differently in every state such that different states in the US gave women a right to vote at different times during the movement (Evans, 1989). The state of Wyoming had been the first to give voting rights to women in 1869.In the second unit, several other states gained the rights to vote before the government eventually agreed to pass it as a law throughout America. Colorado obtained franchise in 1893 and immediately after, Idaho and Utah gave rights in 1896. Women in Washington were enfranchised in 1910 and from this tim e on to 1918, Kansas, Arizona, Montana, Nevada, Michigan, California and South Dakota among others had given women a right to vote. Victory at last The House of Representatives passed the women suffrage amendment in 1918.This was after President Woodrow Wilson declared that America needed to accept women suffrage urgently as a war measure (Keller, 2003). The motion was however rejected by the Senate so that the amendment was defeated yet again. Another attempt in 1919 February failed as well. It was not until June 1919 that the Senate finally bowed to the pressure and the nineteenth amendment was passed (Keller, 2003). This was later signed into law by the Secretary of State in August 1920 (Adams, 2003). This day marked the liberation of women in America and the women could now participate in the voting process. Significance of the women suffrageThe final outcome of the women suffrage movement was a victory worth reckoning. The American women had made history in one of the most pers istent politically inspired campaign (Cooney, 2009). The women suffrage movement can be said to have had an enormous impact on American politics and the meaning of democracy. Women in America could finally lend their voice in government decisions through their votes. The victory of women suffrage laid the basis of equality and democracy as we know them today (Cooney, 2009). The nineteenth amendment advocated for equal rights to vote and that no one would be discriminated on the basis of gender or race.This was a major breakthrough which the present women generation should hold dearly. Thanks to the woman suffrage movement, women today can vote and influence major policy decisions of the state. Had there been no women suffrage movement, women would have retained their inferior position in the society and they would have never been part of the democratic society through selecting their leaders. Not only was it a great achievement for the American women but also for women in the world who had not yet secured their rights to vote.The American experience encouraged them to fight on. Examples included United Kingdom, Philippines, Japan, Italy and Switzerland among others where women were allowed to vote in later years. Conclusion The women suffrage is one event that will remain a significant part of history for a long time. This is because it was a major breakthrough both in the country's democracy and in the position of women in the society. It reflects a determined fight on the part of the women leaders such as Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Anthony who exerted all their efforts into women liberation.The challenges that the women went through during this period and their willingness to endure is a reflection of the commitment that they had on the movement. NAWSA being the organization that lobbied for the support of women across the country played the role of pressuring the government to amend the constitution to include women as having equal rights to men. Even thou gh not many men supported the women suffrage movement, some were for the signing of the amendment as reflected during the voting done in the House of Representatives which most definitely consisted of men.The Senate also later agreed to side with the motion to support women voters. This change in perspective is a reflection of changes in culture that have occurred in history. From this, the women fraternity could now be included in the government decision making process by electing leaders whom they wanted to represent them. Democracy was now afforded to everyone in America alike; many steps away from the previously male dominated society. In unit two, American women made history by enduring the longest women political movement in America.One political issue they faced and which led to the movement was the denial of a right to suffrage which means they had no right to vote in general elections. They occupied the traditional position in the society and had no say in the running of th e government. They were to be subjective to men and remain stuck in domestic chores. An attempt to defy from this was met with utter hostility. In response to these issues, women in America organized groups aimed at garnering for the women rights and recognition in the society.Most prevalent were the women suffrage movement groups which sought to secure the right for women in America to vote in the general elections. The outcome of that was severe opposition both from the society and the government before the nineteenth amendment which was eventually passed to give women the right to suffrage. Word Count: 2574 References Adams, C. (2003). Women's Suffrage: A Primary Source History of the Women's Rights Movement in America. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group. Belle S. B. (1911). The Woman Movement in America: A Short Account of the Struggle for Equal Rights.Boston, MA: A. C. McClure & co. Crawford, E. (2001). The women's suffrage movement: a reference guide, 1866-1928. London: Rutl edge. Cooney, R. (2009). Taking a New Look – The Enduring Significance of the American Woman Suffrage Movement. Retrieved on June 6 from http://www. mith2. umd. edu/WomensStudies/ReadingRoom/History/ Vote/enduring-significance. html Dubois, E. C. (1999). Feminism and suffrage: the emergence of an independent women's movement in America, 1848-1869. US: Cornell University Press. Evans, S. M. (1989). Born for Liberty: A History of Women in America.Free Press. Frost-Knapp man, E. (2005). Women's Suffrage in America. U. S: Facts on File. Joannou, M. & Purvis, J. (1998). The women's suffrage movement: new feminist perspectives Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. Keller, K. T. (2003). The Women Suffrage Movement, 1848-1920. New York: Capstone Press. Kerber, L. K. & De Hart, J. (2000). Women's America: refocusing the past. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Technology has bring us to a new scenery where readily available is potentiality of both opportunity and coercion. The WritePass Journal

Technology has bring us to a new scenery where readily available is potentiality of both opportunity and coercion. Introduction Technology has bring us to a new scenery where readily available is potentiality of both opportunity and coercion. IntroductionDomain of study:Exploring information in the outside world.Technology and Organization:Privacy issues in relation to CustomersPrivacy issues in relation to EmployeesConclusionRelated Introduction Technology has bring us to a new scenery where readily available is potentiality of both opportunity and coercion. On top of the one side technology have redefined whatever we do (for example message, production, distribution etc.) is very easier. On the other hand it have increased unprincipled practices like pilfering others information, downloading inappropriate equipment, tools, information or data and   stealing others acknowledgment card, credit card, number etc.,   and misuse it . (Whitaker, 1999; Sheikh et al., 2000). People encompass to hide their secret. Departing online means that anything you converse can be read and tracked with no trouble. In present scenario we can exchange a few words with anyone everywhere in the world through easy source of internet. E-commerce and internet publicity are booming day by day, this change in the resources of communication have let enormous amount of our data and activities we did to be composed and stored in the databases of individuals who provide services like Internet service Providers (IPS) mobile and telephone operators, and others (Whitaker, 1999; Rauhofer, 2008   Laudon and Laudon, 2009). Information technologies facilitate in collection of information, storing and retrieving them when needed. It helps managers of different levels and other workers of the organisation in making decision, and maintaining coordination and control (Whitaker, 1999; Laudon and Laudon 2009). Today’s technological infrastructure has allowed us to access information easily and hence increased their value as well. Anything which can be digitized in a form of bits is information. Information has different values (for instance entertainment value, educational value etc.). The technology has made possible the delivery of information to the end users (Shapiro and Varian, 1999). The present article therefore critically, examine the affect of privacy about clients or customers and employees into relation with the companies. Within order to carry on so a apparent view of privacy , and how information are used and store is analysed first. This will be follow by how big business corporation are using advance technology to supervise workforce and how they are jamboree information from the clients are described Subsequent to that issue concerning clients privacy and workforce privacy are deiscussed. The succeeding section will talk about about whether privacy matters or not. The final conclusion is drained from all the debate. Nevertheless, there are numerous who dispute that privacy is deceased and we should gain knowledge of to get over it., also   there are a number of individuals who say there ought to be privacy and if any person tries to break the privacy they should be punshied. Domain of study: Clients or customers confidential information privacy means to make them relaxing in disclose their personal information as necessary by the administration (Hsu and Kuo, 2003; Sheikh et al., 2000; Akcura et al., 2009). According to the words of   Westin (1967) privacy is persons concern to manage terms and conditions under which his or her personal statistics is composed and used, personal data means the objects or figures or information which is linked with an identifiable personality. On or after business direct of view privacy is building customers at simplicity disclose their information essential for connection advertising. (Resnick and Montania, 2003) Exploring information in the outside world. Over the history of few years customers are more worried about the defeat of privacy because of the degeneration state of Internet which inculde of junk e-mail, track of users piece of paper narration from beginning to end like cookies and undesired contribution and giving out of user information for purpose incompatible with the original one, we can take the   example of the case of America Online which sell its consumers information such as private information, monetary information and current or previous or any othere internet deeds etc. (Milberg et al., 1995; Wanget et al., 1998; cited by Hsu and Kuo, 2003). Here the challenge is that for the customers is about that they doesn’t know who is accumulate their data and what is through with the information. Private information is composed from the consumer so that the seller can make a long term connection with the clients, if people are influenced that the corporation comply with privacy policies and rules then they may not be uncertain to share their information and as well as they might trounce with the unease related to privacy (Resnick and Montania, 2003). However, there are only a small number of people who in fact read the policies and rules. Depnding on the   report by Jupiter Media Metrix (Cyber Atlas, 2002) 40 percent providers or users understand the privacy policies earlier than construction a purchase .(Resnick and Montania, 2003). On the whole privacy concerned and not enthusiastic or agreed to share private information was seen as a danger or hazard to e-commerce by Clinton Administration. According to Green (1998)   a community opinion review has originate that for the reason that of privacy concern and individuals who are not online do not determination to go online. Other survey (Georgia Tech Research Corporation 1997, Privacy and American Business 1997) has create that users who are online refute to give information or supply false information if the location be unsuccessful to show why their information are being composed and how it is leaving to be used (Culnan, 2000). Collection of information and usage: According to Resnick and Montania (2003), the retailers collect the information from the customers in two ways: a)   active collection (client declared data). b)   inactive collection (behavioural and purchase information) The retailer can agree on the customers’ preference by: Click stream Tracking: it is a tool that track the data   about the customer activities and amass them in a record. It accounts the location you have logged in or visited and pages you visited on your place, time used up on every site and what you have purchase etc., Collaborative filter: it refers to a   software that track users actions on a spot which compare the information it gains about users performance, so that it can forecast what the client want in the container of other client with similar concentration   we can go for an example of According to the collected information the vendor or the retailer can then be familiar with about clients or the customers’ buying routine and their preference and use these information to particularly goal at advertising. The world famous search engine Google has completed more than ten billion dollars in the year 2006 from online ad’s. (Laudon and Laudon ,2003) Technology and Organization: The progression   in the information technology has render a lot of rules and policies and laws of slight or no outcome. There are some technical trends that are accountable for ethical quandary and they comprise the trend of twice computing supremacy in every 18 months and the collision of this trend has ended association rely on computer system for well-organized and efficient operation. The technical development has distorted the method we do business. The establishment should act in response with the change taking position in order to stay spirited in todays’ ever altering environment. One feature of the management to direct with the changes is to go after the technological ethics and set of laws. Organisations must classify the policy as on how they are going to make use of the possessions and what is the penalty are for misusing it (Sheikh et al., 2000). Latest data or information technical infrastructure has not only shaped opportunities but trouble as well, managers of the associations or organisations need to deal with these issues and be attentive of and greeting the influence of information scheme, so that they can get reimburse from the new technology they have taken (Laudon and Laudon, 2003). Several business managers be short of in information which marks in wrong conclusion , that is the cause why mainly of them rely on guesses and the result is not definite. In the end it reduce sales and clients as well, information technologies have facilitate manager to make use of concurrent data whereas making decision if we take the example of one of the biggest Bell operating companies in the United States called Verizon Corporation uses a Web based digital control panel which provide real time information concerning customers acquiescent network recital of each neighbourhood and damaged chart. Utilizing the data they get can obtain immediate deed for repair and preservation.(Laudon and Laudon, 2009) The organisations should distinguish among public and private, if workforce are to be monitor they must be knowledgeable before dispense. Generally all organisations these days use video cameras at way in and exit and frequently in parking and elevators. The cause behind this is for the protection and security of the regulars, clients, customers, staffs, equipments and the place as well. They can keep hold of and amass the tape for a exact period after that the tape should be shattered. This means information have to be held till its rationale for collecting vestiges and must be smashed when the purpose is satisfied. (Sheikh et al., 2000; CMA Management 2005) Information systems deliberate data in computer records which has extremely probability to be access by other. Consequently these kind of data are additional prone to fault, fraud and mistreatment therefore those organisations that depends mainly on digitized system knowledge heavy defeat when the scheme fails. Consequently company needs to be responsive and take extra step to protect the information and make certain , that their system is running healthy (Laudon and Laudon; 2003). Usually corporate privacy cover clients privacy and employees privacy., any breach in the privacy can charge a enormous loss to the organisation not only in financial form but it also wounded its reputation in the marketplace United Kingdom Financial Services Authority (FSA) fine nearly  £1 million with Nationwide Building Society for the seepage of information next the stealing of a laptop from an member of staff in 2006. Within the company had to expend a massive amount to notify the customers of the risk they had to tolerate. Therefore extreme concern must be known to make certain that the information whether composed in document or digitized form must be reserved safely and shattered after the work is done (Carlson, 2006; Eric, 2010). Internet is more susceptible because it is unlock to all anyone can make use of or mishandling it. While internet become a fraction of the organisational system, the organisations system might be at risk as well. Organisations must be unbolt to th e internal workforce and external party like clients, regulars, suppliers and trader and their information must be kept confidential when they are automatically transmitted. By means of doing so only the trade or business can get advantage from electronic commerce (Laudon and laudon; 2003). Privacy issues in relation to Customers Organizations nowadays take on e-commerce to gather huge data of regulars, they can then propose superior military to customers, which will increase consumer worth and their faithfulness too.   In addition they can split the information by means of third parties and boost their profits from cross selling. With the intention of this, the reason why customers in the era of electronic business are worried about the information composed by the organisations. Although, organisations have influenced their customers that their database are safe and sound and will not be collective with anyone   inactive the customers are worried. (Akcura et al., 2009) Nearly everyone   the commercial activities, we create gives information about our exchange routine and choices. In the year 1990 Lotus Corporation have developed a CD-ROM and bring in the marketplace which contain generated Information (TGI). It clearly shows the buying ways or patterns and profits of 120 millions individuals of United States. Later than the remonstration has been made Lotus was strained to withdraw the manufactured goods or proucts (Brin, 1998).   According to the Carole Lane in ‘Naked in Cyberspace’   just commencement with the name and address, it is without difficulty could possible to find out what you do; what is your spouse and children name, which car you use and how much you give for tax, over all of your information just in little hours (Brin ,1998). In the majority of the supermarkets they concern a club certificate like Tosco Club Card, Sainsbury’s Nectar Card etc.   Clients or Customers sign their card before paying in order to get bonus and discount. Nearly everyone of us understand this as now the supermarket will correlate our exchange pattern in a record so that the company can think likely our needs, which is helpful both for the corporation and us as well.   Although a number of privacy advocates discover it as frightening to picture expressive all the details of the card (Brin, 1998). Google is the famous and number one tool people use to search any kind of information on the internet. It maintains the records of all search engines and IP addresses for nearly two years. The company identify users with a unique cookie. Thus, the most troubling factor to privacy experts is the amount of information it has collected from its customers (Vaas, 2007). The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) had outlined the information that Google accumulate from its users: Google and you Technology  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   What it track Google search  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Any explore or search term a user enters Google Desktop  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Index of a users’ computer files, e-mails, music, chat and Web browser history Google Talk  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Instant message chats between users Google Mail  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   User’s e-mail history; default setting retains e-mails indefinitely Google Calendar  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   User’s schedule Google Orkut  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Social networking tool stores personal data, such as name and location Google Reader  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The ATOM and RSS feeds that a user reads Google Video orYouTube  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Videos watched by a user The other division which has knowledgeable a momentous change in message and storage owing to advance skill or knowledge is medical field. The exercise to uphold medical evidence of patients by electronic means could help to get rid of human errors. On the other hand these compensation come with linked risks as well.   The privacy of the patients information could be at risk while store on a web server which can possibly access from any place in the earth. Privacy human rights Clearinghouse (2005) has claim that over 218 million data has been stolen since January 2005 which consist at least 34 million of medical information Consequently, in spite of having a number of payback of Electronic Health Records (EHR), readily available are some salient risks concerning client privacy (Clarke et al., 2009). Privacy issues in relation to Employees The privacy of workforce has become an budding issue of apprehension mainly to executive, supervisors and workers. While there is complexity in monitoring and controlling the workers technology has provide employers with contemporary and advance resources of monitoring workforce at work. Technology enables employers to evidence each and the whole obsession employees do. Employers in many countries like Canada, Japan etc. use monitoring as a output tools (Conlon, 1997; Guftey and West, 1996). Technology have made the work of human Resource professional easier to maintain enormous data of history and in attendance employees. Their job is to manage the activities of the company like: recruitment, training, promotion and to keep evidence. In several organisations Human Resource professionals might be touching and modify the individual information of workers than any other section So, it seems that they are the one who are possible to harm personal information than others. A folder of personal information of workers is human Resource Information System (HRIS). It use a relational catalogue to store up and make a distinction all the files that are concurrent by some general elements (for e.g. ID number or name or date of birth etc.) which tolerate other department and brushwood to access information (Hubbard et al., 1998; Eric, 2010). The apply of HRIS has better accuracy and data irretrievability.   But as the idea of privacy evolve Human Resource managers have to think and take steps to protected HRIS by humanizing and as long as training to workers and making them conscious of the issues, tuition employees to sign off correctly using passwords to protecte facts and not allowing to split passwords with anybody else and others. By focusing on the reason and quantity of data composed HR managers can reduce privacy actions and preserve high moral principles (Eric, 2010). There has been a tremendous increase on monitoring workers behaviours over the last ten years (Brown, 1996). According to managers, it is essential for the business to ensure staffs accountability by spying on them, tracking all the e-mails, phone calls, logging trips to the bathroom etc. but the opponents of this concept regards it as violating human rights (Brin, 1998). Another area of privacy litigation is monitoring of e-mail. Many employees assume that e-mail messages are private and confidential and cannot be seen by others, but their assumption is not fully right. One of the privacy advocates Marc Rotenberg said that â€Å"E-mail is more like a postcard than a sealed letter† (Guftey and West, 1996). A new technology which is seeing growing is genetic screening of employees by which employers can screen genetic composition of employees which indicate biological predispositions. By checking the pre-employment data employers can then reject those employees who have more possibility to fall sick. The selected employees may be then given a smart identity with a micro-chip through which management can track whatever the employees do (Sloane, 1992; Hurd, 1990; Olian, 1984 cited by Brown, 1996 ) According to Brown (1996) privacy must be judged and maintained correctly. According to him organisations must constantly scan and assess the privacy need. If there is correct balance between rights, policies and practices, the outcome is positive for both individual and organisation. But if there is incorrect balance then the result is negative such as increased conflict, violation and potential litigation. This can be illustrated in figure as below: Chart: outcomes of privacy practices and workers needs by Brown (1986). For that reason managers must endeavour to keep up employee safety and protect their privacy and human rights and reduce disruption in the place of work (Guftey and West, 1996). According to the isolation or privacy advocate John P. Barlow it is good, not to have any covert because everybody would be more more contented and safer if people does not have no matter which to hide, no one can go alongside anyone (Brin ,1998). At the present time people divide information online with no caring in relation to privacy. The interview by MSNBC with Google CEO Eric Schmidt, he alleged if somebody doesn’t want persons to know what he or she is doing online, he or she should not be exploit it online. Additional he argue that if anybody is penetrating some location it doesn’t indicate that he or she wants to share the information through others. There are some responsive information which are classified and which he or she doesn’t want others to identify (Rapoza, 2010). Consequently it seems that if persons think and judge that privacy is dead they won’t care about it (Rapoza, 2010).   Other than there are many other people who argue that th ere should be privacy. People these days are misusing technology. We can take an example of e-monitoring abuse is the case of Holy Cross Hospital in Silver Spring, Maryland during 1987. A hidden camera was placed in a nurse’s locker room to monitor suspected theft, later the recording was broadcasted on TV monitor which was seen by security chief (male). After complaints the camera was removed (Guftey and West, 1996). Conclusion Technology has urbanized so far, that there is no such obsession in the globe which is not exaggerated by it. Technical advancement have made the procedure of meeting storing and retrieve of data simple, fast growth in information and technology has prearranged rise to the subject on privacy. Individuals are more anxious about privacy these days than they used to be. In conversation about privacy,   privacy differ in itself. According to the   Google CEO individuals who are frightened and doesn’t want whatever thing to be joint with anyone, it is enhanced not to go on-line. In this twenty first century, there are barely few persons who don’t go online. People nowadays; use social networking like facebook, twitter which show that people today doesn’t care about privacy. In the company of the change in time, the way by which organization used to observe and manage workforce has been distorted. Regardless of the reimbursement from technology it bring hazard to individuals as well. The essential one is threat to privacy. Close at hand are still persons who believe with the intention of there should be privacy and it is their human precise. It is obvious that to run a business we have to gather information about regulars and workforce at workplace. But the direct of centre slander in to what degree employee’s information and customer’s facts should be together. Since   privacy breaches, many fake cases are rising in digit like: using others acknowledgement, credit card, using other identity, disclose other private data for the tremble of money or amusing etc. There are at a standstill debate and issues regarding privacy. For that reason, it would be advantageous to all if knowledge or technology is seen in a constructive rather than in a pessimistic way. The only object is while adopting new-fangled technologies individuals should think about using it correctly and exactly so that everybody could get benefits.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Robert Hayden essays

Robert Hayden essays Robert Hayden, the twentieth century poet, wrote poems that many times used history and form that allowed him to craft narratives that had different voices. He used historic themes in many of his poems to show the shared heritage of the African Americans. He also used form to get his message across, invoking a sense of speed, ideas, or to use different voices to focus the poem through. His poems Night, Death, Mississippi, and Runagate, Runagate, both showcase his use of history and the ways he used form in his poetry. In his poem Night, Death, Mississippi Hayden writes about the lynching a black man late at night somewhere in Mississippi. This is a historic poem, written in a grisly but effective manner. It is historically accurate in telling the story of a lynching in the details. The white men coming at night, the white robes, and the details of the lynching are all historic, and true things. The lynching in the poem is unspecific, as it could be any one of hundreds that have occurred in the south since the Civil War. The poems main theme or idea, is to show how completely inhuman blacks were thought to be. In the first part of the poem, an old white man sits on the porch in the darkness, listening to the cry of the lynched black man. He is sick and too weak to go out with the lynching party, but he wishes he were out there. He also remembers fondly the time he had cut of the genitals of a black man and listened to him scream in pain. The second part of the poem focuses on the son, and he tel ls the details of the lynching and why he enjoyed better then hunting animals. All of this serves to show the actual feelings many whites had or still have about blacks mainly in the south, but they exist elsewhere too. The poem Night, Death, Mississippi starts with the lines A quavering cry. Screech owl? Or one of them? Right of the start, the poem brings a sense that something is not right. It is not till the second stanza th...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Understanding States Rights and the 10th Amendment

Understanding States' Rights and the 10th Amendment In American government, states’ rights are the rights and powers reserved by the state governments rather than the national government according to the U.S. Constitution. From the Constitutional Convention in 1787 to the Civil War in 1861 to the civil rights movement of the 1960s, to today’s marijuana legalization movement, the question of the rights of the states to govern themselves has been the focus of the American political landscape for well over two centuries. Key Takeaways: States' Rights States’ rights refer to the political rights and powers granted to the states of the United States by the U.S. Constitution.Under the doctrine of states’ rights, the federal government is not allowed to interfere with the powers of the states reserved or implied to them by the 10th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.In issues such as slavery, civil rights, gun control, and marijuana legalization, conflicts between states’ rights and the powers of the federal government have been a part of civic debate for over two centuries. The doctrine of states’ rights holds that the federal government is barred from interfering with certain rights â€Å"reserved† to the individual states by the 10th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The 10th Amendment The debate over states’ rights started with the writing of the Constitution and Bill of Rights. During the Constitutional Convention, the Federalists, led by John Adams, argued for a powerful federal government, while the Anti-federalists, led by Patrick Henry, opposed the Constitution unless it contained a set of amendments specifically listing and ensuring certain rights of the people and the states. Fearing that the states would fail to ratify the Constitution without it, the Federalists agreed to include the Bill of Rights. In establishing American government’s power-sharing system of federalism, the Bill of Rights 10th Amendment holds that all rights and powers not specifically reserved to Congress by Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution or to be shared concurrently by the federal and state governments are reserved by either the states or by the people. In order to prevent the states from claiming too much power, the Constitution’s Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Clause 2) holds that all laws enacted by the state governments must comply with the Constitution, and that whenever a law enacted by a state conflicts with a federal law, the federal law must be applied. The Alien and Sedition Acts The issue of states’ rights versus the Supremacy Clause was first tested in 1798 when the Federalist-controlled Congress enacted the Alien and Sedition Acts. Anti-federalists Thomas Jefferson and James Madison believed the Acts’ restrictions on freedom of speech and freedom of the press violated the Constitution. Together, they secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions supporting states’ rights and calling on the state legislatures to nullify federal laws they considered unconstitutional. Madison, however, would later come to fear that such unchecked applications of states’ rights could weaken the union, and argued that in ratifying the Constitution, the states had yielded their sovereignty rights to the federal government. The Issue of States’ Rights in the Civil War While slavery and its abolition are the most visible, the question of states’ rights was the underlying cause of the Civil War. Despite the overarching reach of the Supremacy Clause, proponents of states’ rights like Thomas Jefferson continued to believe the states should have the right to nullify federal acts within their boundaries. In 1828 and again in 1832, Congress enacted protective trade tariffs, which while helping the industrial northern states, hurt the agricultural southern states. Outraged by what it called the â€Å"Tariff of Abominations,† the South Carolina legislature, on November 24, 1832, enacted an Ordinance of Nullification declaring the federal tariffs of 1828 and 1832 â€Å"null, void, and no law, nor binding upon this State, its officers or citizens.† On December 10, 1832, President Andrew Jackson responded by issuing a â€Å"Proclamation to the People of South Carolina,† demanding that the state observe the Supremacy Clause and threatening to send federal troops to enforce the tariffs. After Congress passed a compromise bill reducing the tariffs in the southern states, the South Carolina legislature rescinded its Ordinance of Nullification on March 15, 1832. While it made President Jackson a hero to nationalists, the so-called Nullification Crisis of 1832 reinforced the growing feeling among Southerners that they would continue to be vulnerable to the Northern majority as long as their states remained a part of the union. Over the next three decades, the main battle over states’ rights shifted from economics to slavery. Did the southern states, whose largely agricultural economy depended on slave labor, have the right to maintain the slave trade in defiance of federal laws abolishing it? By 1860, that question, along with the election of anti-slavery President Abraham Lincoln, drove 11 southern states to secede from the union. Though secession was not intended to create an independent nation, Lincoln viewed it as an act of treason conducted in violation of both the Supremacy Clause and federal law.   Civil Rights Movement From the day in 1866, when the U.S. Congress passed America’s first civil rights law, public and legal opinions have been divided on whether the federal government overrides states’ rights in attempting to ban racial discrimination nationwide. Indeed, key provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment dealing with racial equality were largely ignored in the South until the 1950s. During the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, southern politicians who supported the continuation of racial segregation and enforcement of state-level â€Å"Jim Crow† laws denounced anti-discrimination laws like the Civil Rights Act of 1964 as federal interference with states’ rights. Even after passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, several southern states passed â€Å"Interposition Resolutions† contending that the states retained the right to nullify the federal laws. Current States Rights Issues As an inherent byproduct of federalism, questions of states’ rights will undoubtedly continue to be a part of American civic debate for years to come. Two highly visible examples of current states’ rights issues include marijuana legalization and gun control. Marijuana Legalization While at least 10 states have enacted laws allowing their residents to possess, grow, and sell marijuana for recreational and medical use, the possession, production, and sale of marijuana continues to be a violation of federal drug laws. Despite previously rolling back an Obama-era hands-off approach to prosecuting violations of federal marijuana laws in pot-legal states, former Attorney General Jeff Sessions clarified on March 8, 2018 that federal law enforcement officers would go after dealers and drug gangs, rather than casual users. Gun Control Both the federal and state governments have been enacting gun control laws for over 180 years. Due to an increase in incidents of gun violence and mass shootings, state gun control laws are now often more restrictive than federal laws. In these cases, gun rights advocates often argue that the states have actually exceeded their rights by ignoring both the Second Amendment and the Supremacy Clause of the Constitution. In the 2008 case of District of Columbia v. Heller, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a District of Columbia law completely banning its citizens from possessing handguns violated the Second Amendment. Two years later, the Supreme Court ruled that its Heller decision applied to all U.S. states and territories. Other current states’ rights issues include same-sex marriage, the death penalty, and assisted suicide. Sources and Further Reference Drake, Frederick D., and Lynn R. Nelson. 1999. States Rights and American Federalism: A Documentary History. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-30573-3.Mason, Alpheus Thomas. 1972. The States Rights Debate: Antifederalism and the Constitution. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN-13; 978-0195015539McDonald, Forrest. 2000. States Rights and the Union: Imperium in Imperio, 1776-1876. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas.Interposition. Center for the Study of Federalism.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Research Paper Example I. Medical Research in the United States Since the dawn of time, human tends to evolve itself to help improve the surrounding; this made it even more important to find a viable â€Å"cure† from various diseases. Through different ages of time, mankind came to know of various diseases and found cure for it. United state of America has also played a vital role in inventing cures for diseases which are known to be â€Å"in-curable† and also focus its research on some unknown diseases, specifically on cancer and its cause. Some famous medical researches conducted by American medical practitioners are: i) The Potential of Circulating Tumor Cells as a Liquid Biopsy to Guide Therapy in Prostate Cancer: The authors presented results, that prostate-specific antigen/prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSA/PSMA)–which are based on the measurements and calculations of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in circulating tumor cells (CTC) which helps in enabling the real-time quan titative monitoring of intratumoral AR signaling. This finding indicates that measuring AR signaling within CTCs may help to guide therapy in metastatic prostate cancer and highlights the use of CTCs as liquid biopsy. (Pantel, 2012) ii) Androgen Receptor Signaling in Circulating Tumor Cells as a Marker of Hormonally Responsive Prostate Cancer: The Androgen deprivation therapy also known as ADT was practiced to cure metastatic prostate cancer in earlier days, and many other hormonal therapies were being tested to repress the androgen receptor (AR) from reactivating in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In spite of the different responses to AR pathway inhibitors in CRPC, there are no dependable practitioners to guide their application. In this paper the author used micro fluidic capture of circulating tumor cells (CTC) to measure AR signaling readouts before and after therapeutic interventions (Miyamoto, 2012). These were the following researches that considered being a bre akthrough in the medical history, there was very few researches in the field of prostate cancer and improving the chemotherapy of cancer patients. The main reason was the funding for these researches and the political influence in these areas. II. Successful treatment of various intractable illnesses is now readily available Cancer was labeled as one of the leading causes of death in the United States and research was the only way through which the issue of cancer could have been tackled. The National Institute of Cancer received nearly $2.7 billion and is also funded by intangible sources that have further paved the path to help medical professionals expand their horizons. The importance of cancer research was further iterated by President Obama and according to him: â€Å"Innovation also demands basic research. Today, the discoveries taking place in our federally financed labs and universities could lead to new treatments that kill cancer cells but leave healthy ones untouchedâ⠂¬ ¦ Do not gut these investments in our budget. Don’t let other countries win the race for the future.† (AACR, 2012). There are however many researches being carried out on the treatment of once called intractable

Discuss Mark Twain's portrayal of women in Adventures of Huckleberry Essay

Discuss Mark Twain's portrayal of women in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn - Essay Example While most of the characters represent various members of the male society, there are a significant number of women who play an essential role within the novel. For Twain, there seems to be basically three types of women – the harridan, the sweetly stereotypical Victorian housewife and the intelligent. These types are portrayed within the novel Adventures of Huckleberry Finn through the characters of Miss Watson as the spinsterly old maid, the older Wilks sisters as the properly trained young ladies and the intelligent Mrs. Judith Loftus and Joann Wilks comprising the final set. In the very opening of the book, Twain introduces us to the two most common type of women, the Widow Douglas and her sister Miss Watson. The image we get of Miss Watson is rather grim. She is â€Å"a tolerable slim old maid, with goggles on† who immediately â€Å"took a set at me now with a spelling-book. She worked me middling hard for about an hour, and then the widow made her ease up† (3). While the Widow Douglas is seen as interfering in that she insists on trying to ‘sivilise’ Huck, Miss Watson is nagging in her criticisms. â€Å"Miss Watson would say, ‘Don’t put your feet up there, Huckleberry;’ and ‘Don’t scrunch up like that, Huckleberry – set up straight;’ and pretty soon she would say, ‘Don’t gap and stretch like that, Huckleberry – why don’t you try to behave?’† (4). She is such an unpleasant woman to be around that Huck decides he’d rather go to †˜the bad place’ rather than the good place where Miss Watson has announced she will go. This depiction of her makes it not so surprising that she is an old maid rather than a widow. In contrast to Miss Watson, her sister the Widow Douglas is an older version of the types of girls that Huck meets while on his adventures. The Wilks sisters have been bred to be so

Friday, October 18, 2019

Week two questions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Week two questions - Essay Example Fats play a number of roles in the human body. Their basic function is protection. This consists of the insulation needed to maintain the body temperature, and providing a cushion to protect the body organs. Fats also encourage the growth and subsequent development, as well as the maintenance of the cell membranes. It is necessary in the digestion of vitamins. Carbohydrates are the main source of energy in the body and also a source of calories to help maintain the weight of the body. A meal containing an optimum carbohydrates level may help prevent the body from fat accumulation. Carbohydrates are also influential in the development of the body organs and also the nerve cells, and also in the definition of individual’s biological identity like their blood group. The government should try and promote the eating of healthy foods, without passing their boundaries, since a healthy people are a productive people. It is in the best interest of the government to promote healthy eating. Yes, everything should have set standards. This will be able to prevent unscrupulous producers come up with low quality goods that will be harmful to the general health of the people. The government should ensure laws are in place, to prevent illegal foods that are harmful to the citizens, reach the tables. Supplements like the Folic acid, that is a B vitamin are beneficial as it helps boost the fertility and to prevent birth problems like spina bifida. It also stimulates the development of new cell growth. Tryptophan that works hand in hand with the natural Melatonin that gets created in the brain, to help in the regulation of sleep has side effects like mental changes and also a fast heart

Coprorate Ethics Issues in PSEG and Boeing Essay

Coprorate Ethics Issues in PSEG and Boeing - Essay Example These corporate laws are set by the government and companies but its implementation lies squarely with the employees. According to Nayar (2009), companies must develop trust as it is an essential component which makes customers and shareholders believe in the management. In this paper, I analyse two companies to establish if they have regulations that define their relationships with employees, clients, its suppliers, shareholders and other companies. Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG) This is a company with its headquarters in Parsippany, New Jersey. It is an energy generating company formed in 1903 by merging services of 400 independently owned fuel and electric supply companies. This was done out of the need to enhance service delivery to the locals through a centrally governed public company. Under the leadership of its Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Ralph Izzo, the company drafted a strategic document, â€Å"Be an ethics champion†. This document outlines the lev els of integrity that is expected of company employees, it also stresses the need for these workers to internalize these guidelines to create a unified positive image. This was very necessary since it is publicly owned and requires public trust to effectively execute their functions. It also operates a unique business model as it has subsidiary companies which it has to maintain favourable relationships with (Hansen, 2000). In this document, they highlight internal principles which the company adheres to: to promote accountability, the company submits periodic statements of accounts to the shareholders and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) who peruse them to establish the company’s financial position. This enhances transparency since the authorities scrutinize these books to see if the company engages in unfair trade practices. To promote harmony with company neighbours, it strives to maintain full compliance with environmental regulations which apply within its locati on. Since PSEG deals in dangerous substances which have adverse environmental effects when mishandled, the company has established efficient safety procedures that ensures employees and close neighbours are exposed to minimal risks in case of a disaster at the plant. During company gatherings for instance, the annual general meeting (AGM), the company management engages the shareholders in talks which address these environmental concerns. This stakeholder involvement ensures that the adopted plan gets input from the entire community; the employees, stockholders and clients then feel they have ownership to PSEG by contributing to decision making (Hansen, 2000). PSEG is a company operating in 5 continents; to maintain good ethical practices in countries with inadequate laws protecting integrity at the workplace is very difficult. The company is thus exposed to numerous unethical practices, especially in countries with weak graft laws. In countries with young democracies or authoritari an rule, there are cases of governments demanding high start up cost prior to setting up of an outlet. This partly or wholly goes to private hands in covert business operations. Due to employee racial diversity, the company is faced with personal cases of racial prejudice; the management has the ethical control unit that solves these differences and issue disciplinary actions where appropriate. Lastly, the company encourages employees to be company

Thursday, October 17, 2019

The evolution of the Earth, the Sun, the Moon, planets, and other Essay

The evolution of the Earth, the Sun, the Moon, planets, and other bodies in the universe - Essay Example The last and furthest planet is Pluto, which is a dwarf planet. After the sun, the second brightest object in the sky is the moon. It orbits around the earth once monthly. The impact theory suggests that the moon got formed out of collision between the earth and a very large object, the size of Mars or more. The moon got borne out of the ejected materials from the collision. At the center of the solar system is the sun. The sun is the largest object in the solar system. The sun makes up close to 99.8% of the solar systems mass (Merali & Skinner, 2008). The heat and light shed by the sun makes life possible on planet earth. The planets orbit the sun in paths called ellipses, which are oval shaped. A solar system references a star and all the objects that orbit around it. In our solar system, the sun is the star. The sun as the center of our solar system illuminates the light and heat that make it possible for life within any of the planets (Merali & Skinner, 2008). The planet earth is the only one proven to support life among the system. The planets Mercury and Venus are too close to the sun making them too hot and dry with little atmosphere. The outer planets are also unable to support life because they lack atmosphere, solid ground, oxygen and contain too much

The Management of Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

The Management of Change - Essay Example Change management is an approach which provides a way to transform the organization from present state to desired future state. It is one of the most significant aspects of management which can be regarded as an attempt to ensure that organizations react to the environmental factors in which it operates. Organization change can be implemented in various techniques, such as by altering the mission, strategy, operation, technology, and attitude or behaviour of personnel associated with an organization. It has often been argued that change occurs in an organization due to several forces such as nature of the workforce, economic conditions, competition, social trends, and world politics among others which either relates to the internal or external business environment. Change management is a concept which assists an organization to respond faster to the customer demands. The concept of change management can also be regarded as a theory which tends to motivate the employees of organizatio n to accept the change and execute the organisational process in an effective and efficient manner. Therefore, it can be observed that organisational change management should begin with a systematic diagnosis of the present situation in order to determine both the need for change and the capability of change (Smith & Graetz, 2011). General Motor Company General Motors was established by William â€Å"Billy† Durant in the year 1908. In the year 1920s, with a substantial rise in the demand for automobile General Motors was positioned as a leader of global automobile industry. The company added various brands in its product line such as Chevrolet, Vauxhall, and Opel which in turn helped it to diversify its business all around the world. Chronologically, General Motors built a strong existence in emerging markets, especially in China and Brazil and accomplished its transformation into a solitary global economy. In the modern days, the company continued to grow with electric vehicle technology developing a series of hydrogen motorized fuel-cell notion and demonstration vehicles (General Motors Company, 2012). Nissan Motor Company The Nissan Motor Company was established in Yokohama City in the year 1933 by Yoshisuka Aikawa. Presently, Nissan maintains its prime objective to optimize product development and deliver extremely innova tive technology to its worldwide customers. It is due to this reason that currently Nissan is recognized for its creation of innovative vehicles and service programs all over the world. The company produces multiple ranges of product brands such as Infiniti G, Infiniti G Coupe, Infiniti M and Infiniti EX among others. The products of the company are praised by customers all over the world with its high reliability in terms of quality and price which depicts that the company has been able to attain high level of satisfaction and brand loyalty in its current performances (Nissan Motor Company, 2012). Reasons for Change General Motor Company The General Motor had to

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

The evolution of the Earth, the Sun, the Moon, planets, and other Essay

The evolution of the Earth, the Sun, the Moon, planets, and other bodies in the universe - Essay Example The last and furthest planet is Pluto, which is a dwarf planet. After the sun, the second brightest object in the sky is the moon. It orbits around the earth once monthly. The impact theory suggests that the moon got formed out of collision between the earth and a very large object, the size of Mars or more. The moon got borne out of the ejected materials from the collision. At the center of the solar system is the sun. The sun is the largest object in the solar system. The sun makes up close to 99.8% of the solar systems mass (Merali & Skinner, 2008). The heat and light shed by the sun makes life possible on planet earth. The planets orbit the sun in paths called ellipses, which are oval shaped. A solar system references a star and all the objects that orbit around it. In our solar system, the sun is the star. The sun as the center of our solar system illuminates the light and heat that make it possible for life within any of the planets (Merali & Skinner, 2008). The planet earth is the only one proven to support life among the system. The planets Mercury and Venus are too close to the sun making them too hot and dry with little atmosphere. The outer planets are also unable to support life because they lack atmosphere, solid ground, oxygen and contain too much

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Business plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Business plan - Essay Example There are several reasons for the prospective success of this venture. The most important factor is that the current Korean market is undergoing a period of transition from analog to HD video and IPTV. Therefore, demand for HD related products will be higher at this time than at any earlier period. Also, we believe that selling items online has its advantages over selling in person; specialists, enthusiasts and well-informed customers can access the products’ specifications and research them easily through corresponding company websites. In the Korean market, there are very few companies which sell audio/video equipment online, and most of these remain financially weak with low market credibility. Since the market lacks a leading enterprise that can supply both goods and services related to professional audio/video equipment, there is presently a great opportunity for DBS and B&H to secure the premier position through demonstrated high quality services and supply abilities. Finally, DBS’ past experience in the TV and radio industries prepares it well for a long-term role in this new endeavor, while its knowledge of Korean markets can facilitate the formation of well trained human resources for product services. Total sales of Korean broadcasting market including non-profit earnings have increased from $7,700,000,000 in 2004 to $8,635,200,000 in 2005. Moreover, in 2006, it increased by 12.6 % ($9,719,900,000) from 2005. In consideration of the above factors, it can be said that the Korean markets for professional audio/video equipment shall expand and the demands of regular consumer will also increase. At this opportune moment, cooperation between B&H and DBS not only bears the promise of vast earnings but holds the potential of spreading out to other developing Asian countries. We are convinced our proposed plan shall prove mutually beneficial and

Monday, October 14, 2019

Achievement standard 91329 study exemplar Essay Example for Free

Achievement standard 91329 study exemplar Essay Anaerobic training is used to enhance performance in non-endurance activities to promote strength, speed and power and also to strengthen muscles in a shorter amount of time. Anaerobic training triggers two main energy systems: the high energy phosphate systems, (adenine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP)) and the anaerobic glycolysis system. High energy phosphates are used in small doses within muscle cells and the anaerobic glycolysis system is used in the absence of oxygen inside the cells or when ATP is needed in higher quantities but it cannot be produced fast enough during aerobic metabolism. These energy systems will help to build strength within the muscles and will contribute to a better health and well-being. Demonstrate in-depth understanding on the bodies’ physiological responses from participating in the session. During my training my body was exerting a lot of ATP around my body to give me energy to do the workout. I worked between 75-90% of my max heart rate because the workouts I was doing were very short but intense which meant I had to work harder to get the maximum amount of ATP out of my body. I noticed that after my workouts I was fatigued because the ATP energy within the muscle cells around the area of work had been all used up. Demonstrate comprehensive understanding of the strength and weaknesses of the application of the method of training. You should show an interrelationship between the biophysical principles. Anaerobic training is really good in context to the various sports I participate in because in netball, basketball and touch you are not always on the move but you have to exert small bursts of energy at a time e.g. following the opposition on defence, dribbling the ball towards the hoop and running with the touch ball. The small exerts of energy are using a high build-up of ATP within the muscle cells. Being able to keep working through the pain of working at a 75-90% max heart rate helps to burn fat faster and build muscle. Task 3: Demonstrate comprehensive understanding of the application of biophysical principles. (a)Demonstrate comprehensive understanding of the application of three methods of training (methods of training may include: continuous, fartlek, circuit, interval (short and long), flexibility, resistance and plyometric) you have used in your training programme. Method of training: Short interval training I used short interval training in my training programme because I wanted to challenge myself and improve my health and well-being in a short amount of time. I order to do this I had to work between a 75-90% max heart rate so that my muscles and heart were working as hard as they could to produce maximum physical results. I decided to work at a 2:1 work/rest ratio so my body had enough rest to produce more ATP and so my heart rate can lower a bit so I have to work harder to build it up again. I tried to move as little as possible during rest time so my body has enough time to lower as low as it possibly can before rising again to the same heart rate. During my training I noticed that I was talking to myself various times in a workout telling myself to keep going and reminding myself of the number of reps that were left. This showed that my brain was also being trained along with my muscles and the brain is one of the hardest muscles to train in the body. Method of training: Plyometric training I used plyometric training to build power and speed in my legs by speed skipping and double under skipping. This type of training is important to building power and speed in my lower body by pushing my muscles to move from extension to contraction in a short time at an explosive rate. When doing double under skipping I experienced very small shocks on landing in which my hip, knee and ankle extensors endured a powerful eccentric contraction. When this happened my muscles were forced to tense. The eccentric contraction is then quickly switched to the isometric (when I stopped moving downwards) and then the concentric contractions, in a rapid time frame which is repeated many times. Isometric contraction always occurs in the transition from the  eccentric to the concentric contraction, but in this rapid transition it is practically eliminated. This is builds strength in legs which can be important to runners when leaving a starting block. The reason why I used this method of training was mainly to build strength in my legs which is beneficial to my lower body. Method of training: Fartlek training Fartlek training was used in my training programme to provide variation to the normal training I did. This placed stress on my aerobic and anaerobic systems and I allowed me to work as fast or as slow as I needed to. Between the high intensity running, I did easy and less strenuous jogging to recover for the next high intensity sprint and I could alter the periods of time that I did high intensity and low intensity running which was a bonus to myself. The benefits of the fartlek training were that I could alter the intensity level to suit myself and it was effective to have the two intensities put into one workout. Having this choice to alter the workout did not stop me from pushing myself though. Fartlek training helped to strengthen my legs and improve my breathing so I could maintain at a high speed for a longer period of time. Choose four principles of training. Principles of training may include the F.I.T.T principle (frequency, intensity, time, type), as well as specificity, progression, reversibility, rest and variety. Demonstrate in depth how and why these were applied to the methods of training in your programme. Principle of training: Intensity How did you apply it to your training programme? I specified the intensity of the workout on my training programme before I started working out so I knew to work at a high intensity or a low intensity. To work out my max heart rate I used the max heart rate chart on the wall in the weights room and I double checked it by using the max heart rate formula: 220 – age, which made my max heart rate 204 bpm. I specified in my training programme that I would be working between 75% and 90% of my max heart rate so I used a heart rate app on my phone because we did not have a heart rate monitor at school and double checked it by putting my hand on my pulse and timing it with a stop watch for a minute which would give me  my bpm straight after the workout. This would ensure that I was working between 150-180 bpm. Why did you apply it to your training programme? I applied intensity in my training programme because it kept my heart rate between the 75% and 90% max heart rate. I was working at a very high intensity which caused oxygen transfer into my muscles to be harder. Due to the anaerobic training I did in my training programme, the periods of time I could work within the 75-90% max heart rate area increased and I could easily get rid of the lactic acid that had built up to use within other energy systems in my body. Principle of training: Frequency How did you apply it to your training programme? I ensured that before I started my training programme that I would be training on specific days within the three week period that we were given to complete the training. I wrote these dates down before I started, determining which days I would train and which days I would rest. This assured the teacher supervising and I that I had to follow this plan and stick to the days designated for training. Why did you apply it to your training programme? I applied frequency in my training programme because it helped to balance the amount of stress I put on myself to adapt to the training and allowing enough time to rest and recover. In addition with the foods I ate within the time allocated to train, training frequently (about 4 or 5 times a week) helped my body to burn calories for my health and well-being in which my training programme was intended to improve. Principle of training: Specificity  How did you apply it to your training programme?  To apply specificity in my training programme I had to do a lot of written work before I had even started training. Not only did I specify the days on which I would train or rest, I had to also specify the amount of time I was going to train or do each activity for, what type of training was going to be involved on each day, what specific activities I was going to do with or without equipment on each day and the max heart rate area I was going to be  working within for the day’s session. I did this by writing all down in my training programme before the three week period and then following each session recorded for each date. Because I was merely training to improve my health and well-being I could do a variety of training within my training programme to improve specific parts of my body e.g. plyometric training to build speed and strength in my lower body and fartlek training to improve my breathing while running. Why did you apply it to your training programme? I applied specificity in my training programme because it was forward thinking and helped me to stick to the plan I had set out and be more organised on the training day. Because my training programme was designed specifically to improve my health and well-being I was not training for a purpose such as interval sprints to improve 100m sprints. Making sure that each training session was specific allowed me to train various parts of my body rather than training for a specific activity likt long distance running. Principle of training: Variety How did you apply it to your training programme? I used different methods of training within my training programme to create variety. Each training session in my training programme was different and I was using a different method of training each day e.g. On Monday 26th August 2013, I used plyometric training as my method of training followed by short interval training on Tuesday 27th August 2013. I also mixed methods of training in my workout to create even more variety and test my body’s adaption capacity e.g. adding skipping in to a short interval workout to incorporate a plyometric aspect into my workout. Why did you apply it to your training programme? The main reason I applied variety in my training programme was to prevent boredom from doing the same thing during the three week training period. In my training programme not one training session was the same, some consisted of elements from other sessions but none were exactly the same. I did this because it gave me a chance to work different areas of my body using different methods of training. Training programme evaluation Strengths of training programme. I think that the main strength in my training programme was the variety and intensity that my training programme offered. Due to the lack of specified purpose for training, I could experiment with my trainings and evaluate on whether that session was a success or needed improvement. This proved to be a benefit for my body because I was able to work all parts of my body in the one workout rather that working on only one area of my body. This provided minute amounts of muscle and resistance of energy system developments which was a huge benefit to my psychological health because I knew that this training was working and gave me more self-confidence. Because I added variety into my training programme, especially into my short interval training, it helped to build strength and speed faster than if I did the same training each session. Another strength within my training programme was the simplicity of it. It was easy to follow and I didn’t need to use much equipment in the gym which makes my training programme easy to follow and someone else could easily use it to train with. Weaknesses of training programme. Using methods of training that worked mainly my lower body was one of my weaknesses because it did not provide me with adequate upper body training. Because I used plyometric and fartlek training methods which both worked my lower body muscle groups and they did not benefit my upper body. Also the duration of the short interval training session I did were a bit too long, especially during the first week of the training period, so I was fatigued very early in the session and it was hard to carry on working at the rate I started at. What modifications would you make to the application of the biophysical principles used in your programme? To improve the application of my biophysical principles used in my programme, I would alter it to focus on one specific physical activity but only doing different kinds of workouts that will help to improve that physical activity like doing different workouts focusing on running if I wanted to improve my running skills. Doing this will allow me to accurately measure whether my training is working by looking at results from before I started training and after I have finished training. I would also start with low intensity workouts during the first  week and then eventually elevating the intensity over the weeks following to minimise the fatigue levels while working out. By doing this it will allow my body time to adapt to the intensity and stress of the workouts.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Transformation of Islam: Islam in the societies of Central Asia Essay e

The next work used to study the Islamic government is â€Å"Siyasatnama† (â€Å"Treatise on government†) which provides a model of statecraft and administrative practice. â€Å"Siyasatnama† was written by a distinguished statesman of 11th century, a grand vizier, Abu ‘Ali al-Hasan al-Tusi (1018-92), who was given a title of â€Å"Nizam al-Mulk† (â€Å"the regulator of the state†) for faithful service to Seljuk sultans Alp Arslan and Malik-Shakh (Ibn Khallikan, page 90). â€Å"Siyasatnama† is chosen for present investigation because it reflects social and political life and moral values of the Seljuk period (Scott Meisami, page 145). â€Å"Siyasatnama† allows approaching the Islamic government from two perspectives. First, the Seljuk environment in the late 11th century will be discussed, and last, Nizam al-Mulk’s life experience will be considered. The 11th century Islamic world was characterized by strife and turmoil (Zakhodyor, page 244). Different sects appeared undermining the unity of the ummah, and the Ismailian sect of Muslims was gaining strength in Khorasan (Scott Meisami, page 161). Constant struggle for power between Shiites, Sunnis, and heterodoxy weakened the protection of the state, what was enjoyed by other nations taking military campaigns against Seljuks (for example, Dandanaqan battle) (lecture 2, week 7). In such political situation viziers were especially important, and a valuable contribution to strengthen the Seljuk Empire was made by Nizam al-Mulk, who conducted the state's domestic and foreign policies. Nizam al-Mulk’s theory of government is mainly based on a religious approach. Indeed, Seljuk court was important protectors of Islamic traditions (lecture 2, week 7). A picture of Seljuks as ardent Muslims is given by Aristakes Lastivertc’I ... ...y Nizam al-Mulk’s deep piety. Nizam al-Mulk devotes much attention to strengthening the faith on which Islamic government is based. Nizam al-Mulk relates that when the faith is weakened the state collapses (Ð ¡Ã ¸Ã' Ã' Ã °Ã'‚Ð ½Ã °Ã ¼Ã °, page 61). Indeed, ideology really matters for theocracies, it is the main factor that unites it, and destroying of it lead to break up of the whole state. To sum up, the issues of justice, virtue, and benevolence raised in the work determine the political views of its author. In turn, a socio-political system built by Seljuks had a significant impact on the formation of Nizam al-Mulk’s views. Thus, â€Å"Siyasatnama† is not only an excellent literary monument but also an important material in studying an Islamic governmental system of the Middle Ages, which contains a knowledge gained in practice and gives an idea of what an ideal government should be.