Saturday, August 31, 2019
1. When we say that something gives us Ã¢â¬Å"energyÃ¢â¬ , what does that mean? What is a biological definition of energy? When we say that something gives us Ã¢â¬Å"energyÃ¢â¬ it means we can get sugars or carbohydrates and lipids from that. Humans need to eat carbohydrates and lipids to provide fuel for our bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s metabolism. Human body must have these chemicals in order to function and different food sources provide different types of energy. The biological definition of energy is the element that is stored by cells in biomolecules (carbohydrates and lipids). The energy is released when there molecules are oxidized during cellular respiration and transported by an energy carrier called ATP.2. For each ingredient, research and record the following information: a. What it is (very brief description: 1-2 sentences) b. What it does (very brief description of its physiological role in the body: 1-2 sentences) Red BullÃ ®Ingredients: carbonated water, sucrose, glucose, citr ic acid, taurine, sodium citrate, magnesium carbonate, caffeine, glucuronolactone, inositol, niacinamide, calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine HCl, vitamin B12, natural and artificial flavors, colors.Carbonated waterWhat it is: Carbonated water is the primary ingredient of carbonated soft drinks. Carbonated water is created (or exists naturally) by dissolving carbon dioxide gas (CO2) in water. What it does: Carbonated water can hinder the absorption of calcium. Carbonated water also decreases satiety and improves dyspepsia, constipation and gallbladder emptying.SucroseWhat it is: simple sugar What it does: Can be converted into a form for entry into the primary metabolic pathway in which the chemical energy of its bonds is converted into ATP.GlucoseWhat it is: Glucose is a carbohydrate, and is the most important simple sugar in human metabolism. Glucose is one of the primary molecules which act as energy sources for plants and animals. What it does: When oxidized in the body in the proc ess called cellular respiration, glucose provides energy which can be used by the cells.Citric AcidWhat it is: Citric acid is an organic acid that is found in many fruits. Citric acid is a common food additive and is found in everything from sodas to candies. Whao it does: Citric acid plays a key role in Kerbs Cycle and when you exercise your muscles, this causes your body to consume ATP. Citric acid helps to boost ATP production, which lessens fatigue.TaurineWhat it is: Taurine is an amino acid that is a required building block of protein. Taurine is naturally occurring in the human body and present in the daily diet. It is involved in a wide range of biological processes. What it does: It helps regulate heartbeat, muscle contractions, and energy levels. Usually your body makes enough that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to supplement.Sodium CitrateWhat it is: Sodium citrate is used to make the urine less acidic. Sodium citrate is used to treat a condition called metabolic acidosis. Whit it does: In metabolic acidosis, the acidity of the blood, urine and other bodily fluids becomes too high; it occurs when the kidney is excreting too little acid, or the body is producing too much acid.Magnesium CarbonateWhat it is: Magnesium carbonate is an inorganic salt that is a white solid. Several hydrated and basic forms of magnesium carbonate also exist as minerals. What it does: Its active ingredient is magnesium, a mineral that your body requires to function efficiently.CaffeineWhat it is: Caffeine is a natural ingredient found in the leaves, seeds or fruit of a number of plants. What it does: Caffeine is known for its stimulating effects on the human body by ancient civilisations who consumed it from natural sources like tea, coffee, cacao beans & cola nuts. [http://energydrink.redbull.com/caffeine] Caffeine is also a stimulant of the central nervous system, the cardiac muscle, and respiratory system.GlucuronolactoneWhat it is: Simple sugar What it does: It is a normal human metabolic product formed from glucose. Also regulates formation of glycogen. It is a substance that results from the metabolism of glucose in the human liver. It can boost ATP, lessen sleepiness and increase alertness and reaction time.InositolWhat it is: A sugar that is a member of the Vitamin B complex What it does: Controls cholesterol levels and has potential antioxidant capabilities.NiacinamideWhat it is: Niacin and niacinamide are forms of Vitamin B3. Nicotinamide is a water-soluble vitamin and is part of the vitamin B group. What it does: A component of the coenzymes NAD and NADP, important in the redox reactions of metabolism.Calcium PantothenateWhat it is: Calcium pantothenate is a water-soluble vitamin found in most foods. It is naturally produced in the body by bacteria in the intestines. What it does: Calcium pantothenate is essential for the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s production of hormones, energy production, fat storage, and many other bodily processes.Pyridoxine HClWhat it is: Sy nthetic form of Vitamin B-6 What it does: Energy production, the B-compound vitamins are probably the single most important set of factors needed for proper maintenance of the nervous system as well as proper functioning of the cell and its energy metabolism. Pyridoxine HCl also acts as a coenzyme in the metabolism of protein, carbohydrate, and fat.Vitamin B12What it is: Vitamin B12 is a unique vitamin. Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement and a prescription medication. What it does: Vitamin B12 is required for proper red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis.Natural flavorsWhat it is: Natural flavor is the natural sensory impression of a food or other substance. It is determined mainly by the chemical senses of taste and smell. What it does: It gives each substance a unique taste.Artificial flavorsWhat it is: Artificial flavors are simply chemical mixtures that mimic a natural flavor in some way. What it does: It gives a food some unnaturally occurred taste. Some artificial flavoring is known to cause genetic defects, tumors, bladder cancer, and many other types of cancers.Natural colorsWhat it is: The natural colors of a food or a substance. What it does: we can see the color when light reflects on a food or a substance.Artificial colorsWhat it is: Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink. They come in many forms consisting of liquids, powders, gels and pastes. What it does: They give a food or a substance some unnaturally occurred colors.3. Name the ingredients that provide energy. Briefly explain (1-2 sentences) how each molecule provides that energy (hint: reflect on the various stages of cellular respiration).Glucose: Once the glucose has entered the cell, the cell works to burn the glucose to create energy. This is done through cellular respiration. Durin g this process, oxygen is pulled from the blood and into the cell with the glucose. The mitochondria uses the oxygen to burn the glucose into heat and ATP. ATP is then used to store or release the energy created.Sucrose: Sucrose canÃ¢â¬â¢t provide any energy until itÃ¢â¬â¢s metabolized into glucose. When it is metabolized into glucose, it is oxidized during cellular respiration and provides energy.Citric Acid: Citric acid plays a key role in citric acid cycle (kerbs cycle). The cycle consumes acetyl-CoA and water, then transfer energy from organic molecules into usable forms for the cell, such as ATP, NADH and FADH2, while at the same time removing CO2 as a waste product.Niacinamide: The active form of niacinamide in the body is NAD and this is a very important intermediate in energy production. Essentially, it links the two major biochemical pathways of Krebs cycle with oxidative phosphorylation in order that the body can make our essential energy molecule ATP.4. Name the ingre dients that contribute to body repair (e.g., which help build or rebuild muscle tissue)? Briefly explain (1-2 sentences) how each molecule is involved with repairing tissue.Taurine: Taurine is an amino acid that is a required building block of protein, and protein is a muscle building block which means taurine can build muscle tissue.Pyridoxine HCl: Vitamin B6 supplementation, in conjunction with folic acid and vitamin B12, can lower homocysteine levels. By inhibiting the production of oxalate. Since it is in conjunction with folic acid, it is for proteinÃ repairs because it helps with DNA synthesis which makes protein.Vitamin B12: Vitamin B12 is required for proper red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis. Since it helps with DNA synthesis, which means it is for protein repairs because DNA synthesis makes protein.5. In what ways might the ingredient(s) that does (do) not have a metabolic energy source provide the perception of increased energy after cons umption? Refer specifically to your ingredients list. Glucuronolactone is the ingredient that does not have a metabolic energy source but can provide the perception of increased energy after consumption. Glucuronolctone naturally occurs in the connective tissue. It is a normal human metabolic product formed from glucose. It also regulates formation of glycogen. It is a substance that results from the metabolism of glucose in the human liver. It can boost ATP, lessen sleepiness and increase alertness and reaction time.6. How are the ingredients specified in part (5) helpful to someone expending a lot of energy, e.g., a runner? Glucuronolactone may be useful in physical performance. When used in a pre workout supplement, glucuronolactone in combination with the aforementioned ingredients resulted in an increase in total repetitions performed. Glucuronolactone has been shown to inhibit the synthesis of toxic by-products of intensive exercise as well as other negative effects causing fa tigue.7. Could your drink serve different purposes for different consumers? Explain. Yes, Red Bull does serve different purposes for different consumers. There are many different ingredients in Red Bull and they each have a different purpose. Sucrose and glucose are simple sugars, they are necessary for human body. They can be converted into ATP and provide energy. Taurine is used to regulate heartbeat, muscle contractions, and energy levels. Caffeine can stimulate central nervous system, the cardiac muscle, and respiratory system. It may also improve memory and reasoning responses, other studies have shown that ingesting 3-9mg of caÃ¯ ¬â¬eine one hour before physical activity improves endurance running and cycling in athletes.Another ingredient that can serve different purpose is glucuronolactone, it can boost ATP, lessen sleepiness and increase alertness and reaction time.8. Does your analysis substantiate the claim that this is an Ã¢â¬Å"energy drinkÃ¢â¬ ? Explain No, my analy sis does substantiate the claim that Red Bull is an energy drink. Red Bull has a large extra amount of sugar which does not really provide energy for your body. This is like a Ã¢â¬Å"sugar crashÃ¢â¬ and itÃ¢â¬â¢s not energy, you can crash very quickly. It also has other stimulants as well which can stimulate your nervous system, respiratory system, lessen sleepiness and increase reaction time, as well as caffeine which can give you a clearer mind. A small amount of caffeine is beneficial, but, a large amount of this can only wake you up for a very short period of time, and you can even feel more tired afterwards. And it can also cause your body to dehydrate.9. Is the product claim for your drink legitimate?The product claim does not legitimate. Red Bull is not an energy drink, it only has a large amount of caffeine and sugar, and that caffeine and sugar will not give you energy. It does somehow vitalize your body and mind, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s only in a short period of time, and you can even end up with being more sluggish. It is also not recommended to be drunk at sport because you can get cramps or even heart attack because the large amount of caffeine and sugar.10. Evaluate, in terms of basic physiology and biochemistry, the following statement: Ã¢â¬Å"A lack of sleep causes a lack of energyÃ¢â¬ . Not getting enough sleep made healthy people's bodies resistant to insulin. In a healthy body, when you take in sugar, insulin is released from the pancreas and travels throughout the body, it signals cells that they should absorb some of that new glucose. But when the body becomes insulin-resistant, cells are less responsive to that signal, and glucose levels rise in the bloodstream, which leads to lack of energy.11. Is there such a thing as a Ã¢â¬Å"sugar highÃ¢â¬ ? ExplainNo, there is no such a thing as a Ã¢â¬Å"sugar highÃ¢â¬ . Sugar high is used toÃ describe the energetic behavior experienced after eating sugary foods. But, in reality, sugar does not cause hyperactivity. When the carbohydrates and starches are consumed, they are easily broken down into glucose. And when glucose is present in the body, the pancreas releases insulin, the hormone responsible for causing the cells of the body to absorb sugar from the bloodstream.Through this absorption, tryptophan is converted into serotonin. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s only in severe cases when the bloodstream is completely overloaded with glucose that insulin works too quickly and results in a sugar low, a condition known as hypoglycemia. So, levels after any carb-load remain relatively unchanged unless you really go wild and put yourself in a sugar low.12. Should you simply buy a can of Coke rather than one of these energy drinks? Explain. Neither soda nor energy drinks are healthy because they tend to be high in caffeine, which means you should not simply just buy a can of Coke rather then one of these energy drinks. But a can of Coke can be somehow better than an energy drink because energy dr inks normally contain much more other ingredients then coke. Both coke and energy contain caffeine and sugars, but the amount of caffeine in an energy drink is much higher than the amount of caffeine in a can of coke.Energy drinks contain some vitamins as well, they might give you some benefits but if you consume too much of these vitamins you may experience toxicity symptoms. Also, energy drinks usually contain many other ingredients such as artificial stimulants and they definitely do not give you any benefits at all.13. Honey Boo Boo has made headlines for consuming her Ã¢â¬Å"Go-Go DrinkÃ¢â¬ , a concoction of Mountain Dew and Red Bull. Is this an appropriate drink for a seven year old? Recent political unrest has been calling for legislation to prohibit parents and caregivers from giving young children inappropriate food/drink choices. Do you feel this legislation should be put into effect? Your answer should be focusing on the social, political, economic and/or environmental perspectives. Show critical thought and insight in your answer. First of all, this is definitely not an appropriate drink for a seven year old. Energy drinks all contain a large amount of caffeine and sugars. They also have many other artificial ingredients, stimulants andÃ vitamins.Caffeine has a lot of bad effect on kids or even adults. It changes how attentive you are, and can really cause trouble in terms of sleep, the more caffeine you consumed, the less sleep you got. Caffeine is absorbed in every body tissue. It increases your heart rate blood pressure. It can also change your body temperature and your gastric juices. Caffeine is a stimulant, adolescents gain half of their adult weight in their teenage years. If caffeine curbs their appetite in some way it could affect their growth. Consuming large amount of sugar can cause you Ã¢â¬Å"over-loadedÃ¢â¬ , it can affect your metabolism and make you crash very quickly.Also, appropriate amount of vitamin would be beneficial, bu t a large amount of vitamin will be too much for your body to completely absorb. And, generally, anything thatÃ¢â¬â¢s artificial would not be good for your body because they are not meant to put into your body. In my opinion, the legislation to prohibit parents and caregivers from giving young children inappropriate food/drink choice should not be put into effect. Energy drinks are definitely not good for anyone, but everyone has their own choice to choose. The parents have the right to decide if they want their children to consume or not. Energy drinks sometimes can have bad effects, but it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean they will destroy your body system, they are actually good in some ways.They can wake you up very quickly in an emergency and they can keep you active for a short period of time if necessary. If they are considered as the worst drinks on the earth that would ruin your body system or metabolism, they should already been inhibited. If this legislation is put into effect, many people would start to think that those energy drinks have no benefit to human at any time, the society will be panic about energy drinks. And, if it is put into effect, there could be another political unrest that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want this legislation. If the government just simply legislate that inappropriate food/drinks are inhibited for children, it will cause even more problems. In a economic way to look at this problem, if those food and drinks are inhibited, it will cause a big problem for the companies, the companies may even shut down and it will have a huge effect on the economy.But, think in the environment perspective, inhibiting inappropriate food/drinks would be beneficial for the environment because many ingredients are artificial which make so many wastes, and by inhibiting those food and drinks will actually reduce the pollution. Finally, Honey Boo Boo should not be drinking a concoction ofÃ Mountain Dew and Red Bull because the large amount caffeine, sugar, artifi cial ingredients and some stimulants. It is definitely not good for a child. But, in my opinion, a small amount of caffeine or appropriate amount caffeine would not have bad effects on a kid, so the parents should be responsible and control how much caffeine or sugar their kids consume everyday.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Socio-economic inequalities in wellness have moved up the policy docket and instead than one attack in undertaking adolescent gestation. These attacks can be understood by guaranting an betterment to the wellness of the poorest of the hapless 1s, through contracting the spreads between those in the hapless society and the rich 1s that are to make good, to turn toing the association between socio-economic place and wellness across the population ( Graham, 2004 ) . Public wellness policy in older industrial states is in a procedure of alteration. A narrow concern with advancing population wellness is giving manner to a broader vision of the ends of policy. The broader vision combines a focal point on wellness addition with a committedness to cut downing inequalities in its societal distribution. This committedness is the basis of the United Kingdom new public wellness policies because England Ã¢â¬Ës new scheme seeks Ã¢â¬Ëan betterment to the wellness of the lowest category in society and besides narrow the spread. Ã¢â¬ËTackling wellness inequalities Ã¢â¬Ë is a nucleus driver of policy ( Secretary of State, 1999 ) . Development in the UK is in measure with that elsewhere in Europe. Here, the ends of public wellness policy have been redefined to give greater accent ( Gadikou E. E, Murray C. J and Frenk J, 2000 ; Chang W. C, 2002 ) to undertaking systematic differences in the wellness of advantaged and disadvantaged of us that are sick, and some of us that are non. In so many surveies about undertaking wellness inequalities ( Braveman A, Krieger N and Lynch J, 2000 ; Marmot M, 2001 ) , it has been said that wellness inequalities are more widely understood to mention, non to fluctuations between persons, but no differences between societal groups. In most states, including the UK, wellness inequalities are shorthand for socio-economic inequalities in wellness, whether measured at the person or are flat. Health inequalities which relate to other constructions of inequality like gender or ethnicity are typically labeled in these footings as gender inequalities in wellness, cultural inequalities in wellness etc. to undertake wellness inequalities is hence to undertake unfairness ( Milburn A, 2001 ) . To undertake wellness inequalities in teenage gestation, so good wellness is the manner frontward to every person and non merely a peculiar group or set of people. Decreasing wellness disadvantages, contracting wellness spreads and diminishing wellness gradients can be used to undertake wellness inequalities ( Graham, 2004 ) Undertaking Health Inequalities: There has been a really big sum of research on the causes of wellness inequalities in the universe but less grounds on how to cut down, tackle or convey it to a halt. The major purpose of undertaking wellness inequalities is to construct a more equal distribution of wellness between the societal groups so that every single gets to benefits. Health inequalities were known in the UK after the Black Report was published. The Black Report showed that there had been an betterment in wellness across societal categories with the aid of National Health Scheme ( NHS ) . It is clear that the simplest manner to undertake wellness inequalities is to better on the societal determiners of wellness in which the World Health Organization ( WHO ) defined the societal determiners of wellness as Ã¢â¬Ëthe status in which people are born, turn, adapt, work and age including the wellness system. The figure below shows a sum-up of these conditions as proposed by Dahlgren and Whitehead ( 1991 ) . Figure 1 Dahlgren G. and Whitehead M. ( 1991 ) In UK in the twelvemonth 1980 when the Black Report was foremost produced on the issues of wellness inequalities. Sir Michael Marmot who is an epidemiologist at University College London, published an article on the relationship between wellness and poorness on the Fair Society, Healthy Lives. He described his article Fair Society as a societal gradient in wellness. Michael Marmot said that the causes of wellness inequalities includes life styles such as smoking which remains more common, drug maltreatment, fleshiness, is increasing fastest, adolescent gestation, amongst the hapless in England on the survey The Economist. Tackling wellness inequalities is described as a committedness Ã¢â¬Ëto break the nexus between poorness and sick wellness Ã¢â¬Ë and Ã¢â¬Ëalso improve the wellness of the lowest category Ã¢â¬Ë ( Millburn A, 2001 ) . Reducing Health Disadvantages: At one terminal of the continuum, wellness inequality describes the hapless wellness of hapless groups and communities. Hansard ( 1998 ) said wellness inequality is the nexus between poorness and sick wellness. In this position, wellness inequality is a construct which captures the wellness effects of poorness. Health inequalities are the wellness disadvantages which result from societal disadvantage. It is an apprehension of wellness inequalities which is in line with the authorities Ã¢â¬Ës committedness end Ã¢â¬Ëto make wellness better to the hapless Ã¢â¬Ë . It is an of import policy end in which hapless groups and hapless communities endures rates of morbidity and mortality which the remainder of the population has left behind ( Townsend and Davidson, 1982 ; ONS, 2001 ) . There is a powerful moral statement for undertaking these absolute wellness disadvantages. It is an statement which asserts that wellness is a basic demand which no 1 should be unnecessarily denied. It is Ã¢â¬Ëa really simple freedom, the ability to last instead than yield to premature mortality Ã¢â¬Ë . It is a moral place which puts the wellness of the ( planetary ) hapless at the top of the policy docket. World Health Organisation ( WHO, 1999 ) reported that Ã¢â¬Ëfirst and first, there is a demand to cut down greatly the load of extra mortality and morbidity suffered by the hapless Ã¢â¬Ë . In a state every bit rich as the UK, there are few who would non see the hapless wellness of hapless communities as compromising the simple freedom to last. Average criterions of wellness achieved two decennaries ago should be accomplishable by the poorest now. Specifying wellness inequalities as wellness disadvantages aligns public wellness policy with other elements of the authorities Ã¢â¬Ës public assistance programme. It provides a span between the public wellness and societal exclusion docket, maneuvering both towards intercessions targeted at groups vulnerable to societal disadvantage. However, while offering policy advantages, specifying wellness inequalities as wellness a disadvantage is non without its jobs. It turns socio-economic inequality from a construction which impacts on all to a status to which merely those at the underside are exposed. It is the lowest socio-economic groups and the poorest communities who are Ã¢â¬Ësuffer the result Ã¢â¬Ë , Ã¢â¬Ëhealth inequalities which is the life style of the people and from low income, hapless instruction, bad lodging, poorness, pollution, low educational criterions, and joblessness Ã¢â¬Ë ( DoH, 1998 ) . First, undertaking wellness inequality is non a population broad scheme but it is one confined to sub-groups which make up a comparatively little proportion of the population. Second, undertaking wellness inequality does non widen to conveying degrees of wellness in the poorest groups closer to the national norm. In a society where overall rates of wellness are bettering, absolute betterments in their wellness possibly sufficient to contract the spread between the worst and better away. As a consequence, better wellness among the poorest group has been associated with a widening spread in life anticipation between the underside and the top. Narrowing Health Gaps: At the mid-point on the continuum is a place which focuses non merely on the hapless wellness of hapless groups but besides on their wellness relation to other groups. Here, wellness inequalities are defined in footings of wellness spreads. The Chief Medical Officer ( CMO England, 2001 ) refers to wellness inequality in footings of Ã¢â¬Ëthe spread in wellness between the best off and the worst off in the society Ã¢â¬Ë . The marks for undertaking wellness inequalities, nevertheless, follow a different preparation of the wellness spread in footings of the wellness derived functions ( DoH, 2001 ) those in the poorest fortunes and the norm for the population. The wellness spread is a step of wellness inequality widely used in research to compare the wellness of those at the utmost terminals of the socio-economic hierarchy. This construct of wellness inequality is an of import driver for policy which draws attending to the fact that population norms mask broad differences in wellness between societal groups. The moral instance for turn toing wellness spreads is enshrined in the fundamental law of the World Health Organisation ( WHO ) . It suggests that, in any given society, those in the best wellness set a criterion which all should be able to bask. If this is so, it is those in the poorest groups who face the most profound denial of their cardinal human right. This has been an of import focal point of equity-oriented public wellness schemes and in England, wellness inequality marks are wellness spreads marks ( Botting, 2007 ) . Narrowing wellness spreads therefore represents a more ambitious end than rectifying wellness disadvantages. This measure/concept of wellness inequality is an of import driver for policy devising which magnets attending to the fact that the society norms mask broad differences in wellness between groups. As the national norm improves, contracting spreads requires particular attempts to guarantee that figures ( DoH, 2002 ) are non merely maintaining up, but shuting the inequality spread. Reducing wellness gradients~ To foster the continuum, wellness inequalities as an issue in the UK and other European states is non merely about the differences in wellness between the good, the bad and the ugly but alternatively, the relationship between socio-economic place and wellness in a systematic manner. Reduction in wellness gradients have endured across epidemiological periods, cogent evidence in the nineteenth century where infectious/communicable diseases were truly the major cause of decease but now, chronic or Cardio-Vascular disease ( CVD ) diseases has come to remain to take over. Health inequalities follow a societal gradient and to undertake this socio-economic gradient in wellness is truly a challenging policy ( DoH, 2002 ) . The moral instance for undertaking socio-economic gradients lies in the moral equality of people with regard to wellness and merely as World Health Organization fundamental law provinces, the highest come-at-able criterions of wellness ( WHO, 1948 ) should favor everybody regardless the coloring material, race, faith, belief, socio and economic conditions and this rule has long guided Public wellness in England. A socio-economic derived function has a focal point compared to societal disadvantages which widens the frame of wellness inequality policy in three ways: The research for what causes wellness inequality in the society in a systematic difference in life opportunities, the sort of life styles they live and living criterions with people Ã¢â¬Ës unequal places in the socio-economic hierarchy Undertaking wellness inequalities becomes a population-wide end to bettering wellness which involves everybody. Reducing wellness gradients provides a comprehensive end to one that subsumes rectifying disadvantages and contracting wellness spreads within the broader end across socio-economic groups. Decrease in socio-economic gradient in teenage gestation, there should be an improve at a faster rate to wellness in other socio-economic groups and policies to rectify wellness disadvantages, shuting the wellness spreads and cut down wellness gradients need to be pursued in tandem. Decision The narrative of wellness inequality is clear because the poorer you are, the more likely you are to be sick and to decease younger. The recent rise in adolescent gestation rates calls for pressing action to cut down or halt the rise and besides originate a lessening in these rates. To efficaciously undertake teenage gestation, wellness inequalities related to teenage gestation demand to be tackled ; the root cause of these inequalities need to be tackled. Health inequalities affect everyone and are evitable ( Woodward & A ; kawachi, 2000 ) . Health inequalities are besides progressively been seen as an unfairness ( Graham, 2004 ) . In other words, good wellness is the right of every person and non merely for a peculiar group or groups of people. These constructs which can be used to undertake wellness inequalities can be complementary instead than reciprocally sole.
The Ã¢â¬Å"little CorsicanÃ¢â¬ http://www. pbs. org/empires/napoleon/n_time/html/page_2. html# Click on date, then if you want more information click on the event (will take you to event-specific pages) 1. Where and when was Napoleon born? 2. What did he do in October, 1795? And what title did he receive? 3. Under Napoleon as general, the French fought a prolonged war in 1795-6 with whom? (click on specific battles/victories to find out) http://www. pbs. rg/empires/napoleon/n_politic/people/page_1. html Use the arrows the bottom of the screen to navigate the page and move forward when you are ready. 4. Read NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s quote from Wolloch (at bottom). What was so appealing about Napoleon? What did he offer? 5. What agreement did Napoleon sign with the Pope in 1801 and what did it say? 6. What was the Civil Code? 7. What did Napoleon do in 1802 to give himself more power? 8. What happened on December 2, 1804?Considering the French Revolution and what happened to Louis XVI, why is that ironic? 9. According to Bertaud (in red), why was it important that the Pope came to Paris for the ceremony? Finally, a kingdom as tiny as his ambitions were great. http://www. channel4. com/history/microsites/H/history/guide18/part01. html 10. Click on the Battle of Trafalgar. a. Who was the British leader in this naval battle and what happened to him? b. Who won the battle and what was the significance of the outcome for Napoleon? 1. What did Napoleon do on June 24, 1812 and why is that his Ã¢â¬Å"biggest mistakeÃ¢â¬ ? 12. Britain, Russia, and Austria defeat Napoleon and take Paris in 1813. What is NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s fate in 1814? 13. What is the goal of the Congress of Vienna? 14. Where did NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s final battle take place? 15. Who was the English commander at the final battle? 16. When and where was Napoleon exiled for the second time? 17. Why did the people of France give Napoleon a second chance after his exile?
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Long term care - Case Study Example Since the couple had superstitious about home healthcare, their daughter, and the community around them could have informed them of the benefits of such care, particularly for aging couples that require long-term care (Pratt, 2010).Ã Considering the financing and accessibility of home care services, it is worth noting that are, to some extent, unavailable to most consumers. Perhaps Joan and Jerry were lucky in the sense that the federal and state governments play a role in public financing of patients that need long-term care. In this regard, two programs, namely Medicare and Medicaid, are available to consumers who may need long-term care. However, the criterion for receiving such long-term care is based on two scenarios, which locks out many prospective consumers of home healthcare. For example, only poor elderly patients who are either eligible or covered by Medicaid can access such services. Additionally, only patients recovering from acute conditions who had previously enrolled for Medicaid can get the home healthcare services on long-term basis (Pratt, 2010).Ã Drawing from PierreÃ¢â¬â¢s case, HospiceÃ¢â¬â¢s management ought to develop a program for volunteering in order to supervise to supervise and monitor volunteer works properly to guarantee suitable and safe care of consumers. The management can attach one nursing aide to every situation to ensure that the situations are taken care of effectively and efficiently (Pratt,
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Financial resources and decisions management - Essay Example equity and debt, comes with their advantages and disadvantages. Several factors, such as statutory rules and requirements, terms and conditions imposed by the counter party and general economic conditions are analyzed before selecting one of the options. The downside of acquiring financing through issuance of equity is that the procedure is quite complicated as compared to acquiring funds by approaching any bank. In most cases, a loan is acquired from any bank or financial institution by filing an application for the sanctioning of the loan. The bank or any other financial institution, after evaluating the necessary details such as credit history, financial outlook for assessing the ability of the entity to repay the loans in future, and the purpose of the project for which the loan application was filed, sanctions the loan. Whereas in the case of raising finances through issuance of equity shares, the company has to fulfill several requirements such as issuing a predefined number of shares, issuing shares to the existing shareholder in proportion to their existing shares and appointing a financial advisor for conducting a due diligence of the entityÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. ... In contrast, in equity financing, the company has to wait for a considerable longer period of time for the funds to become available for their utilization. 1.2 The two modes of finance available to the company would be raising funds through issuance of equity or acquiring loan in the form of a mixture of a long term and short term debt. Let us assume that the total requirement of funding for Quality windows Ltd is for ? 100,000. As provided in the scenario, 40% of the funding requirement can be met through internally generated funds, whereas for the remaining 60% the company has to decide about the mode of funding. Thus the amount of fund required to issue is ? 60,000. Option 1: Raising the fund through the issuance of shares The company decides to issue 6,000 shares at ? 12 (par value is ? 10 and premium is ? 2). As per the current market knowledge, the issuance cost per share is ? 1. Other administrative cost pertaining to the issuance of share is ? 5,000 in total which relates to publishing prospectus and appointing an under-writing agent. Thus the total cash inflows to the company for the first financial year would be as under: Particulars Amount in ? Shares issued 72,000 Issuance cost (6,000) Other costs (5,000) Total inflow 61,000 Option 1: Acquiring loan from a financial institution The company decides to acquire loan from a financial institution amounting to ? 70,000. The principal repayment will start two years from the end of the current financial year. In return, the financial institution will charge interest rate at the rate of 12%. Thus, following is the net cash inflow at the end of the financial year: Particulars Amount in ? Loan acquired 70,000 Interest cost (8,400) Total inflow 61,600 Thus it is apparent from the above analysis, that acquiring
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Service letters - Essay Example In addition, a good friend of the family was talking coffee with us, and she commented about the young man to me, claiming that he had once stayed with her when one of the machines broke down until it was repaired. Your juice stores have always given me excellent service and acts, as a place for me to meet my friends. I always feel comfortable even when I am not having a drink because the waiters know that I am a regular visitor. I have noticed that the waiters, including Mr. Rodman, always try to make the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s experience much better, which must be difficult with all the diverse people who visit the store. These groups always want different flavors, as was the case with my nephews. One of them wanted a Pina Colada, while the others wanted a Strawberry Julius and an Orange Julius respectively. Even with the long line behind us, Mr. Rodman pulled more than fifteen colored cups out of the sleeve until he had the right ones, after which he made beverages for all of us, chatting up my nephews. We were all very grateful. I find his attitude brilliant because it is not possible to train understanding and empathy, which means that this is one of your requirements for potential employees, especially as I have heard the same complements from my friends. I felt like Mr. Rodman showed maturity and understanding from his experience of serving families and small children. Even though, buying juice is not the most memorable moment of anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s day, I always remember to visit it every time I come to the mall. I have also learnt a lesson from this experience, which is that understanding and maturity may be more costly and elicit more opinions, but it creates loyalty for customers. This is not in any training manual, but I feel that many stores have a lot to learn from you. I know that I will stay a loyal customer to your business. Thank you. I am writing this letter as a complaint about the terrible service
Monday, August 26, 2019
About positive message - Essay Example The grooming of the workforce is a win-win situation. It is a strategy which will not only benefit the organization but it will also help the employees to improve their market worth which can be cashed on later. There are some rules and regulation while taking any course. These rules and regulations must be followed by the employees so that they can get maximum benefits without any hindrance. Employees are entitled to receive scholarship for those courses which are related to their current job. Initially the courses are being offered for the permanent employees however we also believe that our temporary workers will try to work hard to get the status of permanent employee so that they can also make their market worth through these courses. Tuition fee is considered as one of the major chunk of any study. Therefore the organization has already made an arrangement for it and we hope that employees will make the arrangement for other expenses like books and stationary at their own expense. Grade Ã¢â¬ËCÃ¢â¬â¢ will be considered as a mandatory requirement for the reimbursement of approved applications of the employees. Temporary employees can take some benefits from the scholarship after the completion of their probationary period with the company. Employees interested in under-graduate programs will be better of since the undergraduate programs are not taxed as per the rules of the taxation. There are very few organizations that care about the workforce to such an extent. However we also believe that these facilities are not only benefiting the employees but such a grooming is also enhancing the goodwill of the organization. We believe that employees should consider it as a life time opportunity and try to give maximum time to their courses after the completion of their work. Work experience can not benefit alone. Many HR managers expect that employees should keep themselves up to date with the latest developments related to their field. For example if
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Experts Connection - Research Paper Example Administrators of special education programs need to be aware of the issues in special education so as to deal with them effectively. Special education programs are designed to cater for the needs of students with sensory or physical disabilities, emotional difficulties, behavioral difficulties, communication problems, medical/health conditions and learning difficulties (Simpson & Sonja, 2009). There are many issues in special education programs. They include legal issues, funding issues and personnel issues among others (Pardini, 2002). It is important for administrators of special education programs to comprehend these issues so as to effectively manage the programs and deal with problems that may arise. These administrators of special education programs that serve students who receive special education services should be aware of all the potential issues that may face the programs. Administrators of special education programs are faced with numerous legal issues. There are laws that are designed to protect the rights of learners with disabilities. These legislations should be clear to the administrators of special education programs so that they can be able to comply with the law when managing special education programs and serving the educational needs of students with special needs. An example of such legislation is the Individuals with Disabilities Education (IDEA) Act which is meant to ensure education for children with disabilities in public schools in the most conducive environment (Cortiella, 2009). The law stipulates that special designed instructions and services should be provided to all students with special needs and disabilities. Another example is the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, under which all educational programs in the US are governed. The laws governing special education do so at both state and federal
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Insuring Green Buildings - Research Paper Example In most occasions, it is easy for the insurance companies to accept, underwrite and process the loss handling for the homeowner by automating or simplifying the damage. The focus here is usually to get the sum insured and process the policies effectively (Yudelson, 2006). Most the time those selling the homeowner policies, they insurer do not necessarily look at the different building material for construction in the building, the construction classes or the ecological standard of the building. This is because, in case of a loss or damage, there may occur a dispute between the insured and the insurer regarding the extent in which the damage must be indemnified (Glavinich, 2008). If there is a need for more specification concerning the building construction, the insurance company sends their agents to ask more specifications of the construction process. Although the insurance companies have their agents who researches on the construction process, the agents are advised not verify certain details which may lead the insured to decline the policy and sign the policy with other competitors that ask few questions. Up to now, no study has provided statistical evidence supporting the stance that Ã¢â¬Å"green buildingsÃ¢â¬ have a higher probability and severity of losses. Perhaps the effort to analyze green buildings in detail is not yet justified, given the actual number of owners of green buildings; however, the green buildings are more risky and carry higher claim expectancy (Glavinich, 2008). Residential building insurance mainly provides insurance cover for losses arising from fire, supply water and storm/hail events. Loss experiences, and consequently exposure evaluation and rating of homeowner risks are based on conventionally built houses, concrete, brick, steel and wood (Spiegel & Meadows, 2012). For example, in houses with thatched reed roofs, the probability of a
Friday, August 23, 2019
Case Study Example The iPad and the kindle reader were created to serve the same purpose which is to aid ion acquiring scholarly materials. However, the iPad has been developed to incorporate many features and tasks. However, the kindle reader stands out as the best gadget to use in terms of education. With its partnership with the marketing giant Amazon, the kindle reader has made shopping for books much easier. The kindle reader has been developed to download all file formats of documents. Additionally, the kindle reader has been developed to suit all handheld and computer gadgets. To its features, there is an inclusion of the outstanding 8GB memory which makes storing of files easier. The kindle reader also has the ability of storing 6000 books which makes it the ultimate gadget to use in accessing books. Texting while driving has been an issue posing increasing negative effects on the transport system across the globe. From the social setting, lives are lost each due to carelessness driving mainly attributed to texting while on the wheel. According to Laudon (2012) the effects of texting on the while has cost the society the lives of many people. The political front has also felt the effects as governments officials are banned from texting while driving. This was evidence that the government is more than willing to curb the mess. It unethical to text while driving knowing the danger you are exposing yourself and others to. This in some cases can be termed as murder. The effects of texting while driving has been severe in the United States like many other nations around the globe. The states around the United States share the same negative sentiments when referring to texting while driving. However, the general population is not well sensitized as people continue with this ignorant trait. Individuals ignore the warnings made by authorities and other concerned parties. Amid the warnings from authorities, two separate
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Film genre - Essay Example The initial Star Wars commenced as deliberate attempts by the author mainly to capture the underlying perception of the ancient science fiction and corresponding and escapade serials mainly employed in the operation prior to the featuring of the films within the movie theaters. The hallmark of the underlying serials in regard to the audience is not depicted within the initial episodes of the story and was mostly captured solely on the action. Thus, Lucas commences his film genre sequence with the Episode four that is the New Hope coupled with long scrolling illustrative text. He distinctly strives to evoke the underlying identical sense of being thrown into the underlying center of action. Nevertheless, Lucas encounter problem in regarding to big budget science fiction film because of the inadequacy of the generic models of drawing inspiration. This is also evident lack of similarity films made in the genre except for the very B- movies whose corny view Lucas struggling. In the previous respectable science fiction films, Lucas imaginably turns to inspiration such as in the A Space Odyssey (1968) and corresponding Andrei TarkovskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Solaris (1972). Nevertheless, both the films were slow moving in regard to the philosophical art films that are not the kind of the underlying lofty adventure of Lucas. The genre that looks to be offering best combination of relatively lofty adventure, extensive setting and corresponding classic characters is found in the western. Western is a genre encompasses both the serial shoot that is it possess em-up adventures and corresponding epic tales set within a grand landscape. For instance, the prevailing rowdy cantina at the Mos Eisley spaceport is depicted as a setting of the frontline saloon full of the gamesters and corresponding rowdies thus lifted from any number of the western films. Moreover, Han Solo bears a robust resemblance to the underlying classic western gun for leasing with
Chinese nurse-client relationship Essay The Chinese perspective of nursing Nursing is to understand the health status and concerns of a person, to devise interventions with appropriate health knowledge and skills. There are four Chinese characteristics of epistemic concerns. Qing (? ) is emotion. Li (? ) and zhi (? ) means knowing what is good and right in practice through scientific or systematic studies respectively. Xing (? ) is action. The chinese perspective of nurse To nurse, Chinese people generally argree that the role of the nurses is to report their conditions rapidly to doctors. A Confucian principle of hierarchical relationship between doctor and nurses shows that nurses should know their place, defer to their superiors anf know when to call doctors. Solution to chinese implication Some Chinese cultures like belief, value, attitudes and taboos may act as barriers of clients and nurses. It can be tackled by reminding the nurse to be cultural sensitive in caring process. For instances, nurses may consider characteristics of Chinese people. Chinese always avoid the word dead which is a symbol of unauspicious. They can tacit communication approach like euphemism which is indirect words using the end of life. Nurses may apply therapeutic communication strategies: -To be client-focused, problem-oriented and situational based -Classified as supportive-expressive, analytic and consultative -Directive and educationally focused The Chinese culture is conflicts between Chinese culture and health belief of western medicine. To solve it, we nurses acknowledge of culturally specific nature of problem. Another Chinese culture is the tradition perceive problem as family affairs. To solve it, we nurse can build up nurse-client relationship with strong bond of trust by more communication.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Cambodia And Climate Change Environmental Sciences Essay Our global environment has irregularly changed from year to year. There are many scientific evidences showing that climate change is caused by two factors including natural causes and human activities mainly affecting to the global atmosphere due to the emission of greenhouse gases, such as Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (NO2), and other industrial gases. The change of climate by human activities has caused negative impacts including global warming, sea level rise, increased natural disaster (cyclone, flood, and drought) and has impacted economic development. Obviously, Climate change is real and happening in Cambodia that it cannot avoid. Cambodia is considered to suffer much due to its high levels of poverty and poor infrastructure to cope with natural disasters and other longer-term effects of climate change. Hench, Cambodia is likely vulnerable to Climate Change and Global Warming and in the mean time the rest of the world is concerning that it comes to be dis cussed and debate. The term climate change is often associated with the term global warming. Climate change can be defined as the significant changes in the climate of the Earth, such as precipitation, temperature or wind, which lasts for long period of time, for decades or longer. Global warming can occur from a number of causes, both man-made and naturally occurring. Global warming is also commonly associated with the warming that occurs as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities. (What is Climate Change and the Difference between Climate Change and Global Warming) Global warming and climate change can impact agriculture and food production around the world due to: the effects of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere, higher temperatures, altered precipitation and transpiration regimes, increased frequency of extreme events, and modified weed, pest, and pathogen pressure. Cambodia is one of the developing countries which tends to give less impacts of climate change than in wealthy industrialized countries. Anyways, Cambodia is likely to suffer from the impacts of climate change and global warming that it need to adapt to those changes, especially in terms of droughts, floods, soil erosion and the loss of biodiversity. This in turn will affect land productivity and people will become poorer. In the mean time, Cambodia is an agricultural country that many hectares of land are growing rice. After rice, we keep the land idle, which means we dont grow year-round. As a matter of fact, rice production can contribute to climate change, through flooded fields and the use of chemical pesticides and nitrogenous fertilizers. Agricultural can also potentially help mitigate climate change through soil carbon sequestration by practicing sustainable agriculture practices. (Workshop, May 27-28,2010) More importantly, man-made have impacted most on climate change and global warming. Population growth has disturbed the balance between our ecosystems on our planet as the atmosphere and seas pollution, destruction of the rain forests, fire burning out of control, alteration of sensitive ecosystems, and destruction of the ozone layer. These activities have created an unprecedented Climate Change and Global Warming. Obviously, in Cambodia there is a big space between the rich and the poor as poverty remain the big problem that many poor people live in the disorder condition. Usually people who live next to the river, lakes or sea, mostly water quality is not good since water is polluted by wastes, rubbishes, poisonous chemical substances from pesticides of farmers and industrial wastes or accidents that lead to the endanger of people health. In addition to Cambodias disorder infrastructure which pollutes the clean air due to the smoke of those machines as well as many old vehicles rem ained in the cities produce too much harm on environment. Moreover, Cambodia had faced many wars that left many explosives on many hectares of land which is not only the greatest danger of humanity, but may also have a long-term cumulative effect on the earth climate. Developing countries like Cambodia have been severely affected by climate change and lack the resource to tackle on its own, Hun Sen said at the opening ceremony Monday at the countrys first National Forum on Climate Change. Even though there is a strict environmental policies adopted by developed and developing countries, in somehow the rule of law and economic development is still weak and Cambodia in some way was affected. For instance, there are reports that tons of toxic waste is deposited in Cambodia by other nations. In November 1998, a large quantity of mercury-laden waste from Taiwan was dumped in Sihanouk Ville, a famous tourist and port area in Cambodia. Due to health concerns, thousands of residents fled from the area, resulting in several accidents along a bumpy, narrow road with at least four dead and 13 injured. Surprisingly, a month later another case was found involving more than 650 tons of film scraps from Taiwan again. In addition, several months prior to this, th e Sihanouk Ville police found waste materials including x-rays, used cassette and videotapes from South Korea. (New York Times). Cambodia is a victim of climate change, and developed countries should shoulder more responsibility in reversing the effects of global warming, said Prime Minister Hun Sen (NationalÃ ForumÃ onÃ ClimateÃ Change). For this reason the rich was blamed to be more responsible that they have more resources to settle this matter and huge countries should not blame less-developed countries.Ã Climate Change and Global Warming give direct and indirect impact on the country, community and individual level. On the country level, Cambodia which largely depends on agriculture is vulnerable to agricultural inactivity and losses due to natural disasters. Therefore it will experience slow economic growth due to the global recession and economic crisis which lead to poor and underdeveloped health infrastructure that aggravate health problems and further burden the government. Many livelihoods will be affected by natural disasters. Not only homes and properties, agricultural produce and health, but even community as a whole that result in facing the economic downturn, hence it will lead to more social crime. For instance, by the end of the century, higher sea levels in the Mekong Delta, where nearly half of Vietnams rice is grown, may inundate about half (~1.4 million ha) of the deltas agricultural lands. Compared to developed and other developing states, Least Developed Countries and Small Island Developing States have released relatively small amounts of fossil fuels and thus contribute little harm to climate change and global warming. Yet they seem to be suffered the most. Developing countries in Asia like Cambodia has the least capacity to adapt to Climate Change and Global warming and is therefore in need of whatever external support in order to cope with these issues. Low adaptive capacity has made Cambodia among the most vulnerable region despite it is relatively low suffered from Climate hazard. However, still other areas with high adaptive are vulnerable due to their high population densities and closed location to Climate hazard of sea level rise and floods namely Jakarta and Thailand (John E .Newby/WWF Canon, October 2009). It has been known for some time the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and Small Island Developing States (SIDS) is the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change due to changing weather patterns, particularly severe floods and droughts that lead to immense poverty, hunger and disease. The rising sea level, along with other climatic changes, threatens the very survival of many SIDS. Approximately 860 million people in LDCs and SIDS will be adversely affected by climate change, many of them becoming environmental refugees. (Hamilton, 2005). Many SIDS rely on one or few economic activities, especially tourism or fisheries, both of which are highly influenced due to natural disasters. Climate change is expected to impact aquatic ecosystems, and alter the distribution and production of fish. Fish migration routes, spawning and feeding grounds, and fishing seasons are all likely to change, and the impacts on fishing communities are uncertain. Rising seas, more severe storms, and saltwater intrusion in the deltas will damage the regions aquaculture industry, which is based on species with limited saline tolerance, such as catfish in the Mekong Delta. Cambodia and Vietnam are among the most vulnerable on recent climate change impacts on fishery in 130 countries that is heavy dependence on fisheries, high exposure to climate risks, and limited coping capacity (Mirza, 2003). Apart from that Asian is the places of interest for tourists, including wildlife areas and parks may be disrupted with less tourism due to Climate Change and it also has significantly impacted on agriculture and decreasing in the supply of water and soil moisture during the dry season, which put the stress on the available of water supplies and increasing the need for irrigation. Rice growing areas may also be affected which gives a bad effect on agricultural trade, economic growth and the development (McLeman, 2005). For instance, farmers who directly depend on agriculture are vulnerable to extreme events which can destroy their entire crop due to floods or droughts that occur unpredictably or at the wrong time of the cropping cycle (Warner et al. 2009). The participations from other NGOs and INGOs are really necessary in order to cope with Climate Change and Global Warming. For instance, UNDPs climate change work in Cambodia focuses on strengthening the capacity of government to respond to climate change, creating opportunities for knowledge sharing and building partnerships, as well as supporting research into the impacts of climate change on the countrys economic and human development. For the fulfillment on Climate Change in Cambodia, UNDP has supported the Ministry of Environment to produce various technical reports since 1999 with funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The work of UNDP has not only helped the country fulfill its obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), but to strengthen governments capacity to respond to climate change, mainly through the Cambodia Climate Change Office (UNDP release ). Climate Change and Global Warming is the hot issue that it is not concern in the region Cambodia itself but as the globe issue; therefore it need to be involved from everyone and other institutions. As a poor country like Cambodia we need some fund in respond to Climate Change and Global Warming for we cannot cope with such a problem alone. According to the project by the Cambodia Climate Change Alliance, Cambodia is supported its capacity to develop and strengthening preparedness for climate change risk; for instance, to communities that are vulnerable to climate change and other natural hazards. To run this project, CCCA grants will be implemented that requires the support from the Government and civil society, as well as with technical support by external development partners. More than 80 per cent of Cambodians rely directly on agriculture for their livelihoods, but global warming is likely to affect rainfall patterns, possibly causing crop failures and food shortages. Moreover, the impact of climate change will be an unprecedented and increasing global threat to life, livelihoods and life-supporting systems. Actually, Cambodias contribution to greenhouse gas emissions is low which ranked number 109 by the World Resources Institute, with emissions of only 0.29 tons of carbon dioxide per head of population each year. Nonetheless, Cambodia is suffered from the effects of global warming due to excessive emissions in other parts of the world. Like other countries in Southeast Asia, Cambodia is expected to experience higher and more intense rainfall. The effects are likely to include more severe water scarcity and more frequent floods, resulting in crop failures and food shortages. A remarkable loss of biodiversity will cause a decline in ecosystem services. C oastal communities and eco-systems are likely to be affected by rises in sea levels as well. Hench, higher temperatures and humidity will create conditions for increased incidence of malaria and dengue fever. In respond the Cambodia Climate Change Alliance (CCCA) was announced at the forum by the EU and UNDP and formally launched in February 2010. Despite Cambodia is likely to be hardest hit by climate change, Cambodia was selected to be a pilot country which was funded in the form of pooled and non-targeted resources on the basis of contractual agreements between each donor and UNDP by development partners (UNDP/Arantxa). In regard to the environmental protection, includes sustainable management and sustainable use of natural resources in responses to Climate Change and Global Warming, both international level and national one are together trying to cope with it. In this spirit, Cambodia has been working hard to fulfill its own obligation as it fully supports the efforts to address climate change based on the key principles of the United Nations Framework of Convention on Climate Change, which require specific needs and special circumstances of developing country parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Consequently, Cambodia have acceded the Kyoto Protocol on 04 Jul, 2002 (UNDP, 2004). Moreover Cambodia has completed National Adaptation Program of Action to Climate Change (NAPA) in late 2006 to address the urgent and immediate needs of the country adapt to climate change (Trisurat, 2009). Besides national concern, there are also concern form international actors and outsider states on this problem. In this regard, UNFCCC has created the High-level Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing, chaired by Norways Prime Minister Stoltenberg. Moreover, the US has pledged US$5 million to catalyze efforts to mitigate emissions of Black Carbon, and other countries Norway, Canada, Sweden, Denmark and Finland have joined in this effort and may also pledge contributions (Otero, 2010). According to the concern from some head of states has risen that solutions to the problems of climate change should be reinforced and coordinate in an integrate manner within the framework of sustainable development (8th Asia-Europe Summit Brussels, 2010). At first Cambodia could not fulfill National Adaptation Program of Action to Climate to Climate Change (NAPA) only until in late 2006 that it succeed in the fulfillment to address the urgent and immediate needs of the country adapt to climate change. It is clear that least developed countries like Cambodia and others are the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change due to their limited adaptive climate change capacities. It is clear that weather related change and complex man-mad disaster are increasing frequency and severely in one nation can affect to various part of the world. Their impact on the environment and on climate cannot be overlook. Therefore, broad commitments to address climate change should be agreed at a regional level to ensure that the actions of one country do not negatively affect or undermine the efforts of their neighbors. Though the results of environmental and natural depletion may not be visible now, it will be a heavy burden for Cambodias next generations, who will have difficulty in ecological system. It illustrates that Cambodia is facing the risk of unsustainable development for its next generation. Immediate action is required to tackle hence the government and all other stakeholders must come up with strong policies and fast action to combat climate change. In short, Climate change is closely linked to human activities not only in wealthy industrialized countries people and their livelihoods but also other less developing countries. In particular Climate Change will impact the social and economic in small islands, and also affecting key sectors such as tourism and agriculture, and resulting in risky infrastructure due to Climate variability, including extreme events such as storms, floods and sustained droughts. Therefore the negative impacts of climate change could create a new group of refugees, who may migrate into new settlements to seek new living. Indeed, LDCs and SIDS have neither the financial resources nor the technical capacities to meet their adaptation needs due to climate change and global warming. Consequently, the international community needs to provide stronger financial and technical support to the LDCs and SIDS through the special funds under international frameworks. . In respond special effort needs to be done. Obviously, Cambodia is likely to experience the impacts of climate change and therefore must be prepared to adapt to the changes on the environment, especially in terms of droughts, floods, soil erosion and the loss of biodiversity. Consequently, they will need to adopt sustainable practices on agriculture by reducing the vulnerability of soil based agricultural production systems through the management of soil fertility, management of the cycle of soil more efficiently in grasslands and cropping systems. (Canon, Oct,2009). Moreover, there should be the participating of NGO network members and the government in order to increase their understanding on the issue and what everyone can do is to save water, against pollution, forest protection, wildlife or animals and environmental reservation, recycle, reuse the energy recreation that is a part of daily life. Therefore, in respond to address Climate Change, we should improved energy efficien cy and better use of alternative and renewable energy. We must encourage investment in clean development mechanisms and therefore, green economy must be considered at the top priority of the development agenda. Hence, all countries need to consider setting their own Green House Gaze in the limited target and promote sustainable management of natural resources. Moreover, the regions governments and people need to identify a way to sustainably develop their economies, alleviate poverty, and conserve the regions extraordinary species and ecosystems. The region should improve environmental management capacity and more effective conservation in order to adapt to and reduce the unavoidable climate change impacts (Canon, Oct,2009).
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Workplace Bullying: Literature Review Workplace Bullying Table of Contents Introduction: Aim of This Study: Background for this Study: The Research Problem 1. Defining the effects of bullying 2. Sensitivity of the subject 3. Categories of bullying behaviour Methodology Literature Review: Does Workplace Violence Encompass Physical as well as Emotional Violence? How Bullied Persons Are Seen: What is a Bully Like? What Does Bullying Do to An Organization? Bullying and Workplace Violence: Fundamental Features and Categories of Bullying: Features of bullies: Types of Bullying: Bullying at Schools: Bullying at Workplaces: Cyberspace: Effects of bullying: Analysis: Negative Behaviors: Nature of Bullying: Causes of Bullying: Workplace Environments: Personality of an Individual in Relation to his or her Workplace: Bullying Negates Productivity at the Workplace: Can A Manager Be A Bully? Dictatorial Management Cannot Achieve the Best Results: Survey Results: Conclusion: References: Appendix: People in this modern world have generally become more aware of their surroundings and the ways that they should be treated. They are generally more aware of their self-esteem and their value in society than they were in the past. One reason for this may be because in recent decades there has been more emphasis on things like human rights and equality of all individuals. With particular emphasis on working conditions, people are generally aware of how they should be treated and what sorts of conditions they should be allowed to work in. From a general viewpoint, one may think that this only refers to working conditions such as the physical environment that should not have any hazards in it. The reason for this thought is due to the fact that there have been several cases in the past in which employees were given hazardous conditions to work under. In contrast to this, people are more aware of these past problems, and probably would not hesitate to object to any hazards in workplaces today. In contrast to having asserted the awareness that people might have regarding workplaces hazards, there are several individuals who may not realize that they are still facing workplace problems and end up not objecting to problems around them. Also, some individuals who are aware may not be able to oppose these forces, and thus, are compelled to work under these conditions. Some working conditions may not necessarily be hazardous in the conventional sense, but they may be considered as inappropriate for employees if they suffer stress because of them. One particular type of workplace hazard is known as Ã¢â¬ËbullyingÃ¢â¬â¢, and may be carried out by superiors as well as colleagues. Statistics reflect more than 2 million people at work feeling bullied (Andrea Adams Trust 2005). One in four people say that they have been bullied at least once in the past 5 years. With these statistics, it is further said that workplace bullying results in a loss of 18.9 million working days and Ã £4 billion. This is because those being bullied tend to be absent from work more often. In addition to loss experienced in industries in terms of days and revenue, there is evidence of high levels of stress in individuals being bullied. Yet, it is not easy to evaluate workplace bullying, and this is because of the difficulty in precisely defining what workplace bullying is. There are several definitions of Ã¢â¬ËbullyingÃ¢â¬â¢, but none are agreed on. However, some of these are interesting and do help to gain significant insight to the problem. According to Stale Einarsen (1999), it is suggested that Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"bullying occurs when someone at work is systematically subjected to aggressive behaviour from one or more colleagues or superiors over a long period of time, in a situation where the targets finds it difficult to defend himself or herself or to escape the situationÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬  According to the above definition, bullying might be described as a process through which individuals feel intimidated by someone who uses their strength and power to hurt and frighten them. The presence of this person makes them feel vulnerable and uncomfortable to the extent that it stresses or de-motivates people at their work. In other words, it is a systematic approach through which an individual corners another, and there is no escape unless one escapes the system. Recent research in the UK conducted in the form of surveys and UK cases have highlighted the importance of exposing Ã¢â¬ËbullyingÃ¢â¬â¢. This is because there is significant evidence to prove that it causes anxiety that leads people to suffer physical and mental distress. These are believed to be direct results of bullying in the workplace. It is estimated that in the UK, six million working days are lost annually due to stress caused by bullying, job insecurity, shift work and long hours. According to Cary Cooper (2000), people that reported being bullied had the poorest health, the lowest work motivation, the highest absenteeism figures as well as the lowest productivity compared with those who were not bullied. In addition to this, based on research in Sweden, Heinz Leyman (1993,1996) firstly introduced the concept of mobbing (bullying) as a relentless form of harassment in organisations. Theoretically, it could be asserted that bullying is an extreme type of social stressor at work that works in a system. It may be then said that bullying is a long lasting harassment, systematically aimed at a target person. Having acknowledged the tremendous loss that bullying causes an industry, the UK Government believes that employees should have the rights to work in an environment without being bullied and harassed. In order to combat bullying in the workplace, the UK legal framework gives employees the rights, which protect them from any form of unreasonable treatment wit hin the work place. Keeping the above statistics in mind, this project is concerned with the effects of bullying in workplaces on individuals. It will also explore the nature and causes of bullying at work. Most studies regard bullying as a unified phenomenon, in spite of the fact that different kinds of behaviours are involved. It may be asserted here that these behaviours make individuals feel intimidated and occur in different situations and cross gender, age, and race of individuals. The intimidation and anxiety caused by bullying creates stress and stress related illnesses. The aims of the proposed study are outlined below: What type of negative behaviours that makes individuals feel bullied at their workplace? Explore the nature and causes of workplace bullying. Examine the effects of bullying on individuals. According to Andrea Adams in Ã¢â¬Å"Bullying at workÃ¢â¬ published in 1992 bullying at work is like Ã¢â¬Å"a malignant cancer and the disturbing manifestations of adult bullyingÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ (Adams et al 2000, p.9) Andrea Adams, broadcaster and journalist, was the first person to recognise the significance of workplace bullying, and her book Ã¢â¬Å"Bullying at WorkÃ¢â¬ , remains a landmark in this field. Adams suggests that bullying occurs when Ã¢â¬Å"professional abrasiveness becomes tainted with an element of personal vindictivenessÃ¢â¬ (Adams et al 2000, p32). Bullying is a sustained form of psychological abuse and often radiates from a senior person taking what they feel is strong management. However, bullying may not always come from a senior person in the workplace. It is thought that individuals may be singled out by a number of colleagues for various reasons. Debrah Lee (1998), who has been researching workplace bullying, argues the emergence of workplace bullying as being a problem or whether it should be considered to be an interpretation for an existing problem. She demonstrates that workplace bullying is an interpretation for a range of unfair work practices. She identifies workplace bullying as: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Persistent, offensive, abusive, intimidating, malicious or insulting behaviours, abuse of power or unfair penal sanctions which makes the recipient feel upset, threatened or humiliated or vulnerable, which undermines their self confidence and which may cause them to suffer stressÃ¢â¬ ¦taking credits for another persons idea, ignoring or excluding an individual by talking only to a third party to isolate another, spreading malicious rumours, persistent criticismsÃ¢â¬ ¦. Therefore, it could be said that bullying encompasses various kinds of negative behaviors. There have been a range of debates around the nature and causes of workplace bullying. Stale Einarsen (1999) suggests that bullying may be used in a joking manner describing good natured horseplay or refer to minor events of aggressive behaviour that tend to be easily accepted and tolerated. In this scientific study, the concept refers to rather specific phenomenon where hostile or aggressive behaviour, whether physical or non-physical, are factors of stigmatisation and victimisation of the recipient. However, Dieter Zapf (1999) categorises five different types of bullying behaviour. They are: Work related bullying which may include changing your work tasks or making them difficult to perform; social isolation personal attacks on your private life by ridicule, insulting remarks, gossip or the like; verbal threats of such violence Physical violence or threats of such violence. (Adopted for use quoted in Zapf 1999; source Stale Einarsen 1999) Zapf (1999) argues theoretically that bullying is an extreme type of social stressor at work. It is a long lasting escalating practice aimed at a target person. There is inadequate research and it is difficult to prove the causes and effect of bullying. It emerges that multiple causes of bullying have to be taken into consideration, and that bullying can be caused for various reasons. 1. Defining the effects of bullying One of the main problems of finding out the effects of bullying is Ã¢â¬Å"stressÃ¢â¬ . Estimates of the cost of stress and stress related illnesses range from Ã £5 billion (TUC) to Ã £7 billion (IPD) to Ã £12 billion (CBI) each year. Stress can be caused from a variety of reasons. (www.bullyonline.co.uk) (11/11/05) Christine Hudson (2001) defines stress as: Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ literally a pressure of force exerted on an object. The emotional state that occurs when an individual believes that they do not have the resources to deal with a situation or series of eventsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ (Hodson 2001, p: 144). Beehr Franz (1987) suggest that Ã¢â¬Å"stressÃ¢â¬ has commonly been defined in three ways: as an environmental stimulus often described as a force applied to the individual, as an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological or physical response to such an environmental force (Warr 2002, ch: 8 p: 204). If the cause of stress could actually be pinpointed to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s workplace, it would be convenient to study how s/he may have been bullied. 2. Sensitivity of the subject Bullying is a sensitive topic and people may be in denial or embarrassed because of the fact that they are being bullied. Not everyone will admit that they have a problem and some may not be aware that they are being bullied. Hence, it is a very sensitive area. Precautions must be taken when research is carried out. 3. Categories of bullying behaviour Different theorists have different perceptions of categories of bullying behaviours. Also, individuals have different perceptions of defining what negative behaviour is. The literature review and analysis will help to reveal what authors have to say about different categories of bullying. The method selected for this research paper consists of a quantitative as well as a qualitative approach. Both approaches will help to collect as much data as possible. Qualitative data will be obtained though pertinent journals, books, studies, magazines and newspapers, all presented in a literature review that will be analysed. Quantitative data will be obtained through a survey consisting of 50 participants. A range of questions will be presented to them, and the accumulative answers to these questions will be analysed. In addition to this, the quantitative data will be discussed with regard to the literature review as well. This quantitative method has been selected because a questionnaire will provide the opportunity to seek answers to questions in a larger quantity. Advantages: Questions are designed so that answers from the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ interviews can be added together to produce results, which apply to the whole sample. The research is based on interviews with a representative sample of respondents. The questions are designed to be unbiased Large survey can often be broken down Surveys lend themselves to future replication. Disadvantage: Data becomes the main focus of the research issues. The data provide snapshots of points in time rather than a focus on the underlying process processes and changes. The researcher is often not in a position to check first hand the understandings of the respondents to the questions asked. Issues of truthfulness and accuracy are thereby raised. The survey relies on breadth rather than depth for its validity. This is crucial issue for small-scale researchers. Making use of primary data (Surveys, focus group interviews) and secondary data (journals, databases, case studies, books, newspapers etc.), the clients aim is to find out what types of negative behaviours make people feel bullied at the workplace. This data will also help to reveal the nature and causes of workplace bullying. Analyzing the survey data against the reviewed literature and the analysis will prove interesting. It is through this comparison that one will be able to tell whether the literature reviewed has any similarities shared with the results of the survey. It is expected that there would be similarities, and it is interesting to observe how significant these similarities are. Bullying at a workplace can very easily be likened to bullying in schools. The difference between the two types of bullying is that each of them takes place in different age brackets. Bullying at a workplace is similar to bullying at school because it takes place within an institution that works as an arena within which bullying can be sustained. It is often thought that bullies at schools tend to do the same thing at workplaces when they grow up. This is perhaps because their behaviors may have been ignored by superiors and cheered on by classmates. As a result, the will to dominate continues as they grow up. Some bullies target their victims because they feel the need to control a situation or an environment while others have a natural urge to dominate without any specific reason. Whether bullying takes place at the school level or in a workplace, it has often been noted that insecure individuals exemplify these behaviors. Does Workplace Violence Encompass Physical as well as Emotional Violence? According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) (1999), one of the severest problems being faced at workplaces is physical as well as emotional violence. The ILO defines workplace violence as: Ã¢â¬Å"any incident in which a person is abused, threatened or assaulted in circumstances relating to their work. These behaviors would originate from customers, co-workers at any level of the organization. This definition would include all forms or harassment, bullying, intimidation, physical threats/assaults, robbery and other intrusive behaviors.Ã¢â¬  This definition is also said to encompass bullying. According to CUPEs National Health and Safety Survey of Aggression Against Staff (1994) a similar definition to the previous one is observed, verbal aggression and harassment in its definition of violence is: Ã¢â¬Å"Any incident in which an employee is abused, threatened or assaulted during the course of his/her employment. This includes the application of force, threats with or without weapons, severe verbal abuse and persistent sexual and racial harassment.Ã¢â¬  Definitions such as this one may also encompass bullying. In order to establish a connection between these definitions of physical and emotional violence, and bullying, the following case is important. An employee of OC Transpo in Ottawa (April 6 1999) shot 4 employees dead, after which he shot himself. It was said that the employee had suffered from workplace harassment. The definition of workplace violence that had to be included in the coronerÃ¢â¬â¢s examination had to include definitions of physical violence as well as psychological violence. Psychological violence or emotional violence includes acts such as bullying, mobbing, teasing, ridicule or any word or deed that could psychologically harm or single out an individual person in the workplace. From the inclusion of emotional violence in the definition of workplace violence, it can be asserted that definition is very broad. Such a definition has helped to encompass several behaviors that are objectionable and are recognized as harmful to employees (Einarsen, 2002, 25-30). How Bullied Persons Are Seen: Usually, those who are bullied are seen as weak individuals or individuals that are different and singled-out. As opposed to the way that bullied person might be seen generally, s/he might well be a capable person, and one that handles his or her work independently. Quite often, such individuals are also well liked by their co-workers. However, bullies may pick on such individuals who may have a non-confrontative interpersonal style. Bullies may see the target as a threat, and set out to cut the target down. A bully of this kind may be a superior or even a co-worker. A co-worker may bully another worker because the target is considered one that is capable of excelling in his or her duties. A superior on the other hand may want to bully an employee in order to keep the targetÃ¢â¬â¢s personality in check. This may be done in order to create or reinforce an impression of the superior being in control. Some superiors do take pleasure in bullying their employees in order to, in typical terms, show them who is the boss. What is a Bully Like? Bullies are usually insecure individuals, lacking social skills. The have little compassion for individuals in general, but tend to be harsh on individuals whom they decide to target. Bullies generally try to turn their insecurity outwards by targeting others. They take pleasure in knowing that they can throw their weight around. They use their positions to attack fully capable individuals around them by subjecting them to undue criticism. A bully may also tend to humiliate, ignore and isolate a target in front of others. If the bully is in a senior position, s/he may make things difficult for the target or victim to work through. This would include setting up tasks that cannot realistically be achieved. A bully may also take away important tasks from a target and replace them with demeaning ones. No matter what a bully does to intimidate a target, the basic idea is to control situations and environments. What Does Bullying Do to An Organization? Bullied employees tend to waste anywhere between 10 to 52 % of their work time. Many of them spend time preparing themselves against bullies, searching for support, thinking over the situation, and suffering stress and demotivation. Many of them also do not show up for work regularly due to stress and stress-related illnesses caused. A work environment in which employees are bullied is poisoned with lack of morale, anger, fear, depression, and related feelings. All this results in an employer suffering: loss of efficiency, absenteeism, high turnover of staff, and lawsuits. Not only does an employer suffer because of bullying in a workplace, but bullying has an impact on the targetÃ¢â¬â¢s family and friends as well. The daily stress that an individual suffers is carried to relatives and friends. A targetÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage is also likely to suffer as well with long-term stress. Friendships too come under strain because a target may become possessive (Badzmierowski Dufresne, 2005). The damages caused by bullying also impact the healthcare system. This is because those who suffer stress through bullying tend to receive medication and counseling for coping with the problem, and these could last for significant periods. Bullying and Workplace Violence: Workplace violence is a practice that might be physical or emotional. This means that the tactics used in the process may be physical or emotional. Bullying is one of the tactics considered under workplace violence. Encompassing the emotional tactics used in workplace violence are: bullying, incivility, disrespect, psychological abuse, and emotional harassment. All these tactics may also be referred to as Ã¢â¬Ëpsycho terror. Whichever way one chooses to define and describe these various aspects of workplace violence, they all have the same impact. This is to say that they all result in work time being lost, demotivated employees, medical claims, legal fees, and ultimately, company decline. Quite obviously, there are tremendous losses experienced in terms of both financial loss and in quality of life (Badzmierowski Dufresne, 2005). Focusing more on bullying as a tactic of emotional workplace violence, it can be asserted that bullying is any form of negative behavior that shows disregard for other workers. It might be asserted here that along with there being several definitions for bullying presented by various scholars, there are also several behaviors that may coincide or overlap bullying behaviors. However, it can also be asserted that bullying and other overlapping practices are emotional workplace violence. Bullying is thought to consist of some of the following negative behaviors: Harassment Incivility Teasing Gossiping Purposely withholding business information Overruling decisions without a rationale Sabotaging team efforts Demeaning others Verbal intimidation (Badzmierowski Dufresne, 2005) In addition to the above types of bullying, there are several more that may be included. The different types of bullying that can occur do so in an organization that tolerates incivility. Though organizations may be aware of the damages that bullying does to an organization, responses to the problem are insufficient. Many managers ignore incivility because they either do not want to get involved or they simply believe that it is too much of a waste of time getting involved. Managers sometimes like to keep their slates as clean as possible. So they would rather avoid getting themselves into any interpersonal conflict. In addition to managers not wanting to get into interpersonal conflicts, many of them may not even hear of any problems in the workplace. This could be for various reasons. Perhaps their co-ordination is insufficient and the opportunity for employees to bring up these kinds of problems does not arise. Some employees might feel that they would be going way beyond expected territory if they were to take complaints forward (Badzmierowski Dufresne, 2005). Another reason why managers may not hear about bullying at the workplace is because employees are afraid to bring these issues up even if the opportunities do arise. Employees may be afraid to bring bullying matters up because there are organizations that would regard these complaints as personal disputes and they may not be seen as the concern of the management. It might be asserted here that this could occur because managers know that employees would not take these matters too far even if they were to get serious. However, targeted employees have been known to bring lawsuits against companies for bullying. In the UK, there is legal support for employees that feel bullied, as the UK suffers a loss of several working days and revenue due to workplace bullying. The matter is a serious one, and so is the legal protection of targeted employees in the UK. Though there is legal protection available for targeted employees, there are organizations that permit or even reward blatant confrontation among employees. This is done in the name of competition within organizations. However, there are lines that need to be drawn and if rude language and negative behaviors are overlooked, an organization can suffer intensely. Ã¢â¬Å"Research shows that when targets believe that someone at work has treated them disrespectfully, half will lose work time worrying about future interactions with the instigator, and half will contemplate changing jobs to avoid a recurrence. One-fourth of research respondents who feel that they have been treated uncivilly will intentionally cut back their work efforts. A few will steal from their instigators or their organizations. Some will sabotage equipment. Most will tell friends, family and colleagues about how badly they have been treatedÃ¢â¬ ¦in the worst case, some targets of incivility will exitÃ¢â¬ (Pearson and Porath 2005). Fundamental Features and Categories of Bullying: According to common terms, bullying is known as a type of harassment, carried out by one child over another who is seen as weaker. With this common view of bullying in mind, there are three common features in this form of behavior: It is aggressive and negative, both The behavior is sustained There is in inequality in power of the bully and the target, with the bully having more power (Einarsen, 2002, 25-30) There are also two main categories into which bullying falls. These are: Direct and Indirect bullying, which may also be called aggression Direct bullying is common among males. Indirect bullying is common among females and children. Indirect bullying usually results in the target becoming socially isolated. There are several ways through which this may be achieved. Some of the ways include: gossip, ignoring the target in public, treating those who mix with the target in the same manner, and finding fault with the targetÃ¢â¬â¢s style of dressing and various other social belonging that the target may have, such as his or her religion, race, disability, etc. Bullying can take place in almost any type of set up. It is known to commonly take place in schools, colleges, universities, workplaces, in neighborhoods, and even between countries. No matter where bullying takes place, it must be noted that the element of power has an important role to play, and the power structure seems to be of great importance (Einarsen, 2002, 25-30). To observers of a relationship in which bullying takes place, the power a bully has is dependant on the perception a target has of the bully. The target usually is afraid to defend him or herself effectively. In many cases, a target has reason to be intimidated. S/he may fear the bully may carry out threatened actions such as physical/sexual violence, or loss of livelihood. Features of bullies: There are few notable characteristics of bullying, particularly in male bullies. These include the need for a bully to feel in control and be powerful, sadism, which is a situation where a bully gets satisfaction at watching another person suffer, complete lack of consideration for others, and a particular pattern according to which they work in order to blame the target (Einarsen, 2002, 25-30). Quite commonly, an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s upbringing is blamed for the way that a bully behaves. It is thought that a bully may have been brought up in an abusive environment where s/he might have been exposed to physical forms of punishment at home, little or no parental concern, and an environment in which violence has been used as a way of sorting out problems. Other research reveals that aggressiveness and forceful behaviors, perceiving otherÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviors as aggressive, a drive to preserve oneÃ¢â¬â¢s image, and demonstration of obsessive actions are also observed. Types of Bullying: Bullying, whether a male or a female carries it out, may be considered to be an obsessive and compulsive behavior. This behavior has repeated actions or verbal insults that are used in order to have power over a target (Einarsen, 2002, 25-30). There is also a mixture of intimidation and humiliation used against targets. Some examples of bullying techniques are given below: Name-calling often using the targetÃ¢â¬â¢s or victimÃ¢â¬â¢s names; commonly, the target is accused of being useless in all s/he does Gossiping about the target Stealing items that belong to the victim Unjustly demoting a victim Use of threats to get a victim to do what a bully wants Cyberbullying; this includes making use of various information technologies to bully a victim Physically assaulting a person or his or her property Blackmail Framing a victim before an authority figure Use of insulting remarks against a victims family, about ones home, personal appearance, sexual orientation, religion, race, income level, or nationality Ignoring or Isolating a victim Interfering with a victims personal belongings, and damaging them or using them to mock a victim Dominating a victim by staring Insulting graffiti When bullying occurs in school
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Odyssey is a classic example of great literature, read and enjoyed both under the bright lights of the classroom and the cozy warmth of the homeÃ¢â¬âthis idea is well-known. Yet, there exists a question as to how Homer's Ã¢â¬Å"story of a man never at a lossÃ¢â¬ has managed to maintain the attention of the world to this day. C.S Lewis hints at the answer in his book, The Horse and His Boy: Ã¢â¬Å"For in Calormen, story-telling (whether the stories are true or made up) is a thing you're taught, just as English boys and girls are taught essay-writing. The difference is that people want to hear the stories, whereas I never heard of anyone who wanted to read the essays.Ã¢â¬ Lewis is pointing out the true beauty and art of story-telling; this art form makes its audience want to endure each word. The Odyssey lives on today as a triumph of story-telling because its author is what all authors strive to be: a story-telling master. Said story-telling mastery is demonstrated in The Odyssey as it adheres to the popular imagination's demand for things such as conflict, good versus evil, romance, and adventure. Central to good story-telling and manifest throughout The Odyssey is conflict. Odysseus, whose name means trouble or struggle, fights to return home one last time. Penelope struggles to hold off her suitors and maintain her love for Odysseus with dignity. Telemachos strives to become a man, noble and true. Homer's characters face trials and temptations that make or break them, very much like real life. Numerous forms of conflict capture the audience's attention as they appear in largely true form, relatable and resonant. Tension, fear, suspense. Will he/she overcome the sin he/she is facing? Will God listen and answer his/her plea for help? Readers cann... ...nknown lands. Homer introduces the setting changes by giving details the audience can imagine. He uses vivid and common language to enable the audience to picture each situation. The adventure within The Odyssey sparks imagination that excitingly bridges human experiences in reality (feasts, death, travel, etc.) with the experiences of the characters in the bookÃ¢â¬âa key aspect of good story-telling. Many characteristics of good story-telling manifest themselves within The Odyssey and point out how Homer is a master story-teller. It exists as a classic piece of literature for good reason. It's the epitome of what the popular imagination demands. Conflict, good versus evil, romance, and adventure are four of many aspects that demonstrate how The Odyssey has managed to keep the world's attention throughout the centuries. If you give it a chance, it will pull you in!